Table 1

Characteristics of HIV seroconverters (cases) and their age-matched controls

 Total study population
Cases n (%)Controls n (%)Crude OR (95% CI)
N=42N=126
Socio demographic factors
Age (matching variable)
 14–24 years26 (62%)78 (62%)
 25–34 years15 (36%)45 (36%)
>35 years1 (2%)3 (2%)
Marital status*
 Formerly married29 (69)71 (56)1
 Currently married5 (12)23 (18)0.52 (0.17 to 1.54)
 Single8 (19)32 (25)0.59 (0.23 to 1.52)
Level of education†
 Primary completed or higher24 (57)73 (58)1
 Primary uncompleted or no education18 (43)53 (42)1.03 (0.53 to 2.01)
Source of income*
 Sex work only15 (36)26 (21)1
 Sex work and other22 (52)87 (69)0.41 (0.18 to 0.94)
 No sex work5 (12)13 (10)0.61 (0.17 to 2.19)
Behavioral factors
Alcohol use defined by CAGE score†
 Not drinking/not problem drinking11 (26)62 (49)1
 Problem drinking31 (74)64 (51)2.90 (1.31 to 6.42)
 Total study population
Cases n (%)Controls n (%)Crude OR (95% CI)
No. of sexual partners in last month*
 <517 (40)66 (52)1
 5–1911 (26)29 (23)1.42 (0.59 to 3.44)
 20–497 (17)22 (18)1.33 (0.46 to 3.82)
 50+ or can't remember7 (17)9 (7)2.96 (0.96 to 9.15)
Paying clients in last month*
 No8 (19)22 (17)1
 Yes34 (81)104 (83)0.90 (0.36 to 2.23)
Condom use with paying clients in last month*,‡
 Consistent14 (41)51 (49)1
 Inconsistent20 (59)53 (51)1.39 (0.62 to 3.11)
Intravaginal cleansing in past 3 months*
 Cleansing using soap19 (45)62 (49)1
 Cleansing using water only18 (43)60 (48)0.96 (0.47 to 1.97)
 No cleansing5 (12)4 (3)3.69 (0.95 to 14.25)
Reproductive health
Currently pregnant*
 No38 (90)111 (88)1
 Yes4 (10)15 (12)0.78 (0.25 to 2.48)
Use of hormonal contraceptives in past 3 months*,§
 None19 (50)64 (58)1
 Oral5 (13)13 (12)1.29 (0.41 to 4.03)
 Injectable14 (37)34 (31)1.40 (0.61 to 3.21)
Reproductive tract infections
Mycoplasma genitalium*
 Negative32 (76)105 (83)1
 Positive10 (24)21 (17)1.57 (0.67 to 3.72)
Herpes simplex virus type 2 serology*
 Negative3 (7)48 (38)1
 Positive39 (93)78 (62)7.89 (2.32 to 26.8)
Syphilis*
 RPR−TPHA−31 (74)102 (81)1
 RPR−TPHA+2 (5)11 (9)0.58 (0.12 to 2.70)
 RPR+TPHA+9 (21)13 (10)2.15 (0.88 to 5.27)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae*,¶
 Negative25 (76)95 (96)1
 Positive8 (24)4 (4)6.00 (1.81 to 19.92)
Chlamydia trachomatis*,¶
 Negative30 (91)97 (98)1
 Positive3 (9)2 (2)7.24 (0.73 to 72.04)
Trichomonas vaginalis*,**
 Negative29 (83)87 (86)1
 Positive6 (17)14 (14)1.00 (0.31 to 3.26)
Candida albicans*,¶
 Negative32 (97)92 (93)1
 Positive1 (3)7 (7)0.40 (0.05 to 3.46)
Bacterial vaginosis*,¶
 Negative/intermediate8 (24)55 (56)1
 Positive25 (76)44 (44)3.97 (1.55 to 10.19)
  • *At same visit as M genitalium was tested.

  • †At baseline visit.

  • ‡Among women with paying clients in past month.

  • §Among not pregnant women.

  • ¶Missing for 9 cases and 27 controls.

  • **Missing for 7 cases and 25 controls.

  • RPR, Rapid plasma regain; TPHA, Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination assay