Table 1

Baseline characteristics of ART-exposed DU in Vancouver, Canada, stratified by pVL suppression in the last 6 months (n=587)

CharacteristicTotal (%) (n=587)Viral load suppressionp Value
Yes (%) (n=275)No (%) (n=312)
Sex work*91 (15.5)30 (10.9)61 (19.6)0.004
≥43 years old268 (45.7)170 (61.8)98 (31.4)<0.001
Female gender186 (31.7)65 (23.6)121 (38.8)<0.001
Aboriginal ancestry214 (36.5)90 (32.7)124 (39.7)0.078
Homelessness*143 (24.4)53 (19.3)90 (28.9)0.007
Illicit drug use*
 Any injection drug use443 (75.5)184 (66.9)259 (83.0)<0.001
 Any illicit drug use109 (18.6)79 (28.7)30 (9.6)<0.001
Binge drug use*320 (54.5)141 (51.3)179 (57.4)0.139
Current enrolment in MMT211 (36.0)106 (38.6)105 (33.7)0.218
Incarceration*76 (13.0)26 (9.5)50 (16.0)0.018
Year of ART initiation (per year) (med, IQR)2000 (1997–2006)2002 (1997–2007)1998 (1996–2006)<0.001
≥95% ART adherence325 (55.4)207 (75.3)118 (37.8)<0.001
PI in first regimen240 (40.9)112 (40.7)128 (41.0)0.942
pVL at ART initiation (per log10) (med, IQR)2.56 (1.65–4.30)1.65 (1.54–1.69)4.11 (2.98–4.87)<0.001
CD4 cell count (per 100 cells)* (med, IQR)3.20 (1.93–4.50)3.77 (2.53–4.90)2.64 (1.47–4.00)<0.001
HIV physician experience (per 100 patients) (med, IQR)0.44 (0.11–1.26)0.58 (0.17–1.53)0.30 (0.09–0.94)<0.001
  • *Refers to the 6-month period prior to the interview.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; DU, people who use illicit drugs; MMT, methadone maintenance therapy; PI, protease inhibitor; pVL, plasma viral load.