Table 4

Univariate and multivariate analyses of STI prevalence, condom use and programme exposure in 2006 and 2011, according to place of solicitation

CharacteristicHome baseline/follow-up
n=164/46
Brothel/lodge/dhaba baseline/follow-up
n=50/14
Street/public place baseline/follow-up
n=425/222
Phone baseline/follow-up
n=34/436
HIV prevalence
 Percentage5.8/2.85.3/0.014.6/13.15.8/8.0
 Crude OR (95% CI)0.46 (0.06 to 3.4)*0.88 (0.42 to 1.8)1.4 (0.29 to 6.9)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)0.50 (0.12 to 2.2)*0.94 (0.43 to 2.0)1.6 (0.42 to 6.2)
 Adjusted p value0.36NA0.880.49
Reactive syphilis
 Percentage8.2/3.16.5/0.013.9/6.57.8/2.8
 Crude OR (95% CI)0.36 (0.05 to 2.7)0.43 (0.11 to 1.7)0.34 (0.07 to 1.7)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)0.27 (0.04 to 2.0)0.57 (0.2 to 1.6)0.15 (0.02 to 1.1)
 Adjusted p value0.2NA0.310.06
High-titre syphilis
 Percentage6.3/‡1.9/0.010.5/3.57.8/2.3
 Crude OR (95% CI)0.31 (0.08 to 1.2)0.27 (0.05 to 1.4)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)0.44 (0.14 to 1.4)0.1 (0.01 to 0.81)
 Adjusted p valueNANA0.1700.03
Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea infection
 Percentage1.5/2.5§2.1/2.9§1.2/1.5§0.00/3.8§
 Crude OR (95% CI)1.7 (0.40 to 7.5)1.4 (0.13 to 15.1)1.4 (0.13 to 15.1)NA
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.5 (0.3 to 7.4)1.9 (0.04 to 85.9)1.85 (0.04 to 85.9)NA
 Adjusted p value0.620.730.73NA
Condom use at last sex with occasional (paying) client
 Percentage89.5/76.092.0/100.093.8/98.697.1/98.0
 Crude OR (95% CI)0.37 (0.13 to 1.1)NA4.6 (1.2 to 17.5)1.4 (0.17 to 12.5)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)0.12 (0.02 to 0.86)NA5.0 (1.3 to 21.3)1.3 (0.21 to 7.6)
 Adjusted p value0.04NA0.030.79
Condom use at last sex with repeat (paying) client
 Percentage71.4/70.265.8/100.066.8/96.354.6/94.2
 Crude OR (95% CI)0.94 (0.31 to 2.9)NA13.0 (5.5 to 30.4)13.6 (3.6 to 51.5)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1 (0.27 to 3.7)NA15.9 (5.8 to 43.1)34.1 (6.8 to 171.4)
 Adjusted p value0.98NA<0.001<0.001
Condom use at last sex with regular (non-paying) partner
 Percentage23.6/26.222.2/20.117.7/19.122.5/15.8
 Crude OR (95% CI)1.1 (0.36 to 3.7)0.88 (0.17 to 4.6)1.1 (0.61 to 2.0)0.65 (0.21 to 2.0)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)2.2(0.70 to 7.0)0.14 (0 to 6.9)1.4 (0.67 to 3.2)0.70 (0.1 to 4.7)
 Adjusted p value0.180.30.350.7
Visited by peer educator in past 1 month
 Percentage83.4/92.988.7/83.488.1/94.477.1/89.5
 Crude OR (95% CI)2.6 (0.64 to 10.5)0.64 (0.83 to 5.0)2.3 (1.1 to 4.8)2.5 (0.94 to 6.9)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.9 (0.56 to 6.3)0.67 (0.11 to 3.9)3.5 (1.7 to 7.1)2.4 (0.79 to 7.5)
 Adjusted p value0.310.650.0010.12
Ever attended drop in centre
 Percentage62.5/49.260.7/61.969.2/70.771.9/70.6
 Crude OR (95% CI)0.58 (0.24 to 1.4)1.1 (0.27 to 4.1)1.1 (0.615 to 1.9)0.94 (0.29 to 3.0)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)0.51 (0.20 to 1.3)1.9 (0.11 to 34.4)0.98 (0.5 to 1.8)1.1 (0.3 to 4.1)
 Adjusted p value0.140.650.960.87
Attended programme sexual health clinic in past 6 months
 Percentage61.8/88.369.9/83.469.5/85.865.1/86.4
 Crude OR (95% CI)4.7 (1.7 to 12.8)2.2 (0.46 to 11.8)2.7 (1.4 to 5.1)3.4 (1.5 to 7.5)
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)4.0(1.4 to 11.6)1.9 (0.06 to 60.8)2.8 (1.3 to 6.2)4.8 (1.6 to 14.8)
 Adjusted p value0.010.710.010.004
  • Multivariate models were adjusted for the following variables: current age, marital status, age at starting sex work, duration in sex work, place of solicitation, place where the client is usually entertained, amount charged per sex act, weekly income from sex work, proportion of clients who were new and whether has a regular client. ORs are in relation to follow-up versus baseline.

  • *Not tested positive for HIV.

  • †No reactive syphilis.

  • ‡No high titre syphilis diagnosis for this age group.

  • §Follow-up in 2009.

  • STI, sexually transmitted infection.