Table 2

HIV-related behavioural characteristics and HIV knowledge

CharacteristicN=284
Type of male sexual partnership*
 Regular partner only65 (22.9)
 Casual partner only100 (35.2)
 Regular and casual partners119 (41.9)
Current number of regular male sexual partners
 None90 (31.7)
 1137 (48.2)
 228 (9.9)
 >229 (10.2)
With regular partners (n=184)
 Drug or alcohol use before or during sex*44 (23.9)
 Knows partner's HIV status42 (22.8)
 Sexual risk reduction agreement with regular partners34 (18.5)
 Agreement about casual sex18 (9.8)
Number of casual male sexual partners*
 None65 (22.9)
 1–10151 (53.2)
 11–2047 (16.6)
 >2021 (7.4)
Casual partners talked about their HIV status before sex* (n=219)
 None169 (77.2)
 Some40 (18.3)
 All10 (4.5)
Group sex*103 (36.3)
 Drug or alcohol use before or during group sex* (n=103)29 (28.1)
 Consistent condom use during group sex* (n=103)16 (15.5)
Visited night club/bar/pub for sex with other men*175 (61.6)
Visited sauna/massage parlour for sex with other men*104 (36.6)
Visited cruising park/garden for sex with other men*149 (52.5)
Used internet to meet other men*251 (88.4)
Number of male sex partners found on the internet*
 None33 (11.6)
 1–10107 (37.7)
 11–2024 (8.5)
 21–3012 (4.2)
 >30108 (38.0)
Water-based lubricant use during anal sex with regular or casual partners*229 (86.7)
Paid for sex with male partners*23 (8.1)
Received payment for sex from other men*73 (25.7)
 Consistent condom use with male client (n=73)21 (28.7)
Exposed to any HIV prevention services:174 (61.3)
 Know organisation offering HIV/AIDS or STD/STI services in Penang87 (30.6)
 Received condoms from outreach service, drop-in centre, or sexual health clinic in past year70 (24.7)
 Ever read about safer sex or HIV/AIDS other STI on the internet and other reading materials131 (46.1)
Found it difficult to use condom every time when having sex with other men112 (39.4)
Reasons for difficulty to use condom (n=112)
 ‘Barebacking is more fun’80 (71.4)
 ‘Sexual partners said no to condom’63 (56.3)
 ‘Do not carry condoms’60 (53.6)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted by touching8 (2.8)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through sharing a toilet11 (3.9)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through sharing needles23 (8.1)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through sharing food220 (77.5)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through mosquito bites25 (8.8)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through kissing on the lips80 (28.2)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through insertive oral intercourse208 (73.2)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through receptive oral intercourse180 (63.4)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through insertive anal intercourse235 (82.8)
Believe that HIV can be transmitted through receptive anal intercourse229 (80.6)
Knowledge about transmission (0–10), mean (SD)6.45 (1.74)
  • *In the past year.

  • STD, sexually transmitted disease; STI, sexually transmitted infection.