Table 1

The use of NAATs for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in low-prevalence settings

Author year (Ref)SettingNumber of patients testedNumber of NAATs
N. gonorrhoeae reactive (% of tests)
Method of confirmation of a reactive NAATNumber of NAATs unconfirmed (% of reactive tests)PPV for N. gonorrhoeae (confirmed positive)
Killick 20123Torbay GUM416033 (0.8%)Alternative target and/or culture11 (33.3%)Not reported
Hopkins 20124Liverpool GUM15 253 urine samples76 (0.5%)Alternative target2 (2.6%)98.7%
Bhaduri 20075Worcester GUM181 men,
177 women
3 (1.7%) men,
4 (2.3%) women
Culture0 men,
4 women culture negative
(based on culture positive)
Bromhead 20136Wellington, New Zealand27 585187 (0.68%)Alternative target and/or culture8 (4.3%)95.6%
Upton, 20137Wellington, New Zealand
(community laboratory)
40 053361 (0.9%)Alternative target and/or culture9 (2.5%)97.1%
Kapala 20118Southern Ontario, Canada
(community setting)
96 071248 (0.26%)Alternative target and/or culture142 culture negative or not cultured;
only 65 tested by alternative target, of these 1 unconfirmed.
Not reported
Golden 20049Washington, USA
(non-specialist clinic)
59 664280 (0.47%)Alternative target265 tested, 7 (2.6%) unconfirmed.97.4%
Fowler 201310Manchester and Liverpool NCSP18 044 men,
41 873 women
59 (0.3%) men,
174 (0.4%) women
Alternative targetNot reportedMen ‘not calculable’
Women 3.8%
Skidmore 201111Five NCSP areas219 4121226 (0.56%)Alternative target (2 CSPs);
repeat same NAAT on residual sample (3 CSPs)
Not reportedNot reported
Downing 201012Manchester NCSP16 028111 (0.69%)Reactive NAAT not repeated;
referred for culture
54/78 culture positive69%
(based on culture positive)
Rao 200813Lewisham NCSP7369414 (4.1%)Repeat same NAAT on same
sample; referred for culture
199/296 culture positiveNot reported
Lavelle 200614Liverpool NCSP473 men,
4680 women
8 (1.7%) men,
47 (1%) women
Repeat same NAAT on residual sample;
referred for culture
5/5 men and 34/38 women culture positiveNot reported
  • Percentages in italics are calculated by reviewers, rather than the authors, for ease of comparison between studies. GUM, genitourinary medicine; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification tests; NCSP, National Chlamydia Screening Programme; PPV, positive predictive value.