Table 3

 Risk of prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection by quartiles of alcohol intake stratified by smoking status*

Overall (N =1309)By smoking status
Never-smokers (N=836)Former smokers (N = 206)Current smokers (N = 267)
HPV statusmPR†‡mPR‡§mPR‡§mPR‡§
Any HPV
 Q11.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q21.01 (0.88–1.16)1.16 (0.97–1.39)0.72 (0.39–1.34)0.81 (0.62–1.06)
 Q31.00 (0.88–1.15)1.11 (0.92–1.33)0.83 (0.48–1.43)0.80 (0.61–1.06)
 Q41.13 (1.00–1.27)1.22 (1.031.44)0.90 (0.57–1.42)0.99 (0.79–1.23)
 Q1–Q31.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q41.12 (1.03–1.23)1.12 (0.99–1.26)1.03 (0.72–1.48)1.14 (0.95–1.37)
Oncogenic
 Q11.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q21.09 (0.85–1.42)1.38 (0.99–1.90)0.54 (0.17–1.68)0.77 (0.48–1.24)
 Q31.11 (0.87–1.43)1.25 (0.90–1.75)1.01 (0.46–2.25)0.75 (0.46–1.23)
 Q41.35 (1.08–1.68)1.48 (1.09–2.02)1.10 (0.54–2.23)1.04 (0.71–1.53)
 Q1–Q31.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q41.26 (1.07–1.47)1.23 (0.99–1.52)1.20 (0.70–2.04)1.26 (0.94–1.70)
Non-oncogenic
 Q11.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q20.78 (0.50–1.22)1.01 (0.55–1.85)0.69 (0.25–1.89)0.58 (0.24–1.43)
 Q30.98 (0.65–1.48)1.31 (0.75–2.28)0.66 (0.23–1.85)0.73 (0.31–1.69)
 Q41.20 (0.83–1.74)1.56 (0.91–2.67)0.89 (0.38–2.06)0.90 (0.44–1.84)
 Q1–Q31.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q41.30 (0.97–1.73)1.39 (0.93–2.08)1.15 (0.60–2.20)1.18 (0.67–2.07)
HPV 6, 11, 16 or 18¶
 Q11.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q21.01 (0.63–1.61)1.41 (0.77–2.55)0.26 (0.03–2.17)0.69 (0.26–1.80)
 Q31.15 (0.73–1.79)1.33 (0.73–2.41)0.96 (0.31–2.92)0.65 (0.25–1.74)
 Q41.47 (0.98–2.23)1.73 (0.99–3.03)0.75 (0.25–2.25)1.14 (0.52–2.50)
 Q1–Q31.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
 Q41.39 (1.04–1.88)1.40 (0.93–2.09)0.86 (0.38–1.92)1.50 (0.84–2.67)
  • Bold font indicates a statistically significant HR.

  • *Alcohol intake was categorised by the quartile intake values among HPV-negative men.

  • †Adjusted for age, race, smoking status, ethnicity, circumcision and total number of female partners in the last 3 months.

  • ‡We did not adjust for sex with male partners since over 94% of the men in this analysis reported having zero male partners and there was no difference (p=0.739) across quartiles of alcohol intake as noted in Table 1.

  • §Adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, circumcision and total number of female partners in the last 3 months.

  • ¶HPV 6, 11, 16 or 18 are the quadrivalent vaccine HPV types. 

  • mPR, multivariable prevalence ratio; Qn, quartile.