Table 1

Characteristics of 395 women in prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) study by HIV and ART status*

HIV-positive on ART prior to ANC†HIV-positive started ART during ANCHIV-positive not on ART during pregnancy or delivery‡HIV-negative women§HIV-unknown¶TotalPer cent
Total numbers16262131319395100
Number of ANC visits
 4+ visits9124115714737.2
Age at delivery (years)
 30+ years111595659624.3
Highest attained education level
 None/Primary 1–5220203276.8
 Primary 6–771715164921253.7
 Primary 876584310526.6
 Secondary 1–3011284348.6
First presented at ANC**
 First trimester002180205.1
 Second trimester1217101891324161.3
 Third trimester499106413233.6
Attended ANC with guardian at least once††
 No guardian (all visits)1624202691334287.0
ANC facility
 No switch1525212811635891.1
Delivered at a health centre††
Offered ART in ANC‡‡
 Offered ARTNA123NANA1531.9
 Referred to ART clinicNA129NANA2144.7
 Not offered or referredNA12NANA36.4
Distance to health centre¶¶ (km)
Visited Health Centre for PCR***
 Infant age 6–8 weeks220NANA46.4
 Infant age 9+ weeks204NANA69.5
 Not done122212NANA4673.0
Six weeks oral Nevirapine for child***
Child breastfed
  • *HIV status determined by information held in the demographic surveillance site (DSS) HIV database (annual HIV serosurveys 2007–2011), clinic records and a woman's self-report.

  • †One woman started antiretroviral treatment (ART) while pregnant but before antenatal clinic (ANC).

  • ‡Does not include two women who received a single dose of nevirapine at delivery and one who started ART 6 weeks after delivery.

  • §Random sample of HIV-negative women in DSS who attended ANC after 1 July 2011.

  • ¶HIV-unknown if no DSS test or clinic record and woman reported no HIV counselling and testing (HCT) during ANC or delivery. Includes two women who did not attend ANC or deliver at a health facility.

  • **Excludes two women who did not attend ANC.

  • ††Delivered at a health facility inside or outside the DSS.

  • ‡‡Eight women with a positive test on the DSS database concealed their HIV-positive status during ANC and the study interview. Six reported a negative test result in ANC and two reported HCT refusal.

  • §§An ART start date was found for one of these women.

  • ¶¶Calculated as distance (km) to nearest health centre. HCT, ANC, maternity and ART services available at each centre.

  • ***Information on PCR testing and baby nevirapine was not available for six women who reported a negative status during the study.