Table 3

Risk factors for not being linked to care within 4 weeks of HIV diagnosis among newly diagnosed patients with HIV at Dutch STI clinics 2009–2012

Total (n=310)Delay (n=95) (% delay)Univariate analysis (OR)Multivariate analysis (aOR)
Demographics
MSM279 (97.1%)85 (30.5%)1.0
Heterosexuals31 (2.9%)10 (32.3%)1.1 (0.5–2.4)
Age
 <25 years56 (18.4%)27 (48.2%)1.01.0
 26–40 years160 (52.6%)44 (27.5%)0.4 (0.2–0.8)*0.4 (0.2–0.9)*
 >40 years88 (28.9%)18 (20.5%)0.3 (0.1–0.6)*0.3 (0.1–0.6)*
 Unknown6 (1.9%)6 (100.0%)NA
Ethnicity
 Western169 (54.5%)42 (24.9%)1.01.0
 Non-Western141 (45.5%)53 (37.6%)1.8 (1.1–3.0)*1.3 (0.6–2.3)
Higher educational level (vs no higher education)166 (53.5%)45 (27.1%)0.8 (0.5–1.3)
No health insurance (vs health insurance)29 (9.4%)17 (58.6%)3.9 (1.8–8.5)*2.5 (0.9–6.9)
Risk factors
 Having a steady partner (vs not)181 (58.4%)44 (24.3%)0.5 (0.3–0.9)*0.6 (0.3–1.1)
 Having casual partner(s) <6 months (vs no casual partners)273 (88.1%)84 (30.8%)1.8 (0.7–4.5)
Previous HIV test
 Yes246 (79.4%)66 (26.8%)1.0
 No46 (14.8%)18 (39.1%)1.7 (0.9–3.4)
Previous STI diagnosis207 (67%)60 (63.2%)0.9 (0.5–1.5)
Injected drugs ever8 (2.6%)3 (37.5%)1.4 (0.3–6.1)
Paid sexual contacts43 (13.9%)14 (32.6%)1.2 (0.6–2.3)
Perception
 Disclosed HIV status (vs no disclosure)203 (65.5%)53 (26.1%)0.6 (0.3–1.0)*0.7 (0.4–1.5)
 Perceived sufficient social support158 (51.0%)48 (30.4%)1.0 (0.6–1.6)
 Optimistic treatment expectations155 (50.0%)48 (31.0%)1.0 (0.6–1.7)
 Perceived HIV-related stigma150 (48.4%)44 (29.3%)0.9 (0.5–1.4)
Biological markers
 CD4+ cell count ≥500 (vs <500)168 (55%)60 (35.7%)1.7 (1.0–2.8)*1.6 (0.9–3.0)
 Undetectable viral load (vs detectable viral load)10 (3.2%)7 (70.0%)5.4 (1.4–21.3)*2.4 (0.6–2.8)
Referral to HIV care
Directly by nurse/clinician223 (71.9%)49 (22.0%)1.01.0
Indirect referral61 (19.7%)31 (50.%)3.7 (2.0–6.6)*3.9 (2.0–7.8)*
Otherwise16 (5.2%)8 (50.0%)3.6 (1.3–9.9)*5.6 (1.7–18.1)*
  • *p<0.05.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; MSM, men who have sex with men; NA, not applicable; STI, sexually transmitted infections.