Table 1

Baseline sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics of study participants (n=400)

Characteristicn (%)
Sociodemographic background
Resides in rural area238(59.5)
Length of stay in current residence
 ≤2 years160(40.0)
 >2 and ≤10 years133(28.3)
 >10 years127(31.8)
Region of origin
 Mixed PNG78(19.5)
 Primary (1–6)138(34.5)
 Secondary (7–12)214(53.5)
Married/living with partner364(91.0)
Employment status
 Subsistence farmer109(27.3)
 Wage earner63(15.8)
Chews betel nut335(83.8)
Takes alcohol25(6.3)
Partner smokes302(75.5)
Partner takes alcohol327(81.8)
Reproductive history
Number of pregnancies (including current)
Current pregnancy planned (n=397)288(72.5)
Age at sexual debut
 ≤16 years57(14.3)
 17–20 years213(53.2)
 21–25 years104(26.0)
 >25 years26(6.5)
Ever visited health clinic for suspicion of STI (n=399)57(14.3)
Sexual behaviour
Approached for commercial sex in the past (n=399)38(9.5)
Perceives father of current pregnancy at risk of STI (n=397)133(33.5)
Ever used condoms (since sexual debut)85(21.3)
Reported extramarital sex since conception (n=398)83(20.9)
Knowledge of current partner having extramarital sex (n=397)90(22.7)
Lower abdominal pain (n=398)192(48.2)
Vulval/perianal itching143(35.8)
Pain passing urine128(32.0)
Pain or discomfort during vaginal sex111(27.8)
Vaginal discharge (abnormal smell)88(22.0)
Vaginal discharge (abnormal quantity and/or colour)81(20.3)
Abnormal vaginal discharge†106(26.5)
Any symptom (≥1 of the above)284(71.1)
No symptoms at all116(29.0)
Syndromic diagnosis of vaginal discharge syndrome made and treatment received106(26.5)
  • *Symptoms experienced since woman aware of being pregnant.

  • †Vaginal discharge that had an abnormality of ≥1 of the following: smell, quantity, colour.

  • PNG, Papua New Guinea; STI, sexually transmitted infection.