Table 2

Symptoms and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis infection (n=348)

Symptom≥1 STI
(n=115)
CT
(n=39)
NG
(n=32)
TV
(n=73)
Per centOR (95% CI)p ValuePer centOR (95% CI)p ValuePer centOR (95% CI)p ValuePer centOR (95% CI)p Value
Abnormal discharge*40.92.74 (1.65 to 4.52)<0.00141.02.06 (1.03 to 4.12)0.03746.92.65 (1.25 to 5.59)0.00839.72.13 (1.23 to 3.70)0.006
Abdominal pain58.31.86 (1.17 to 2.93)0.00759.01.65 (0.84 to 3.25)0.14665.62.22 (1.03 to 4.79)0.03657.51.63 (0.96 to 2.75)0.066
Pruritus43.51.56 (0.98 to 2.47)0.05841.01.24 (0.63 to 2.45)0.53346.91.61 (0.77 to 3.35)0.20143.81.48 (0.87 to 2.51)0.143
Dysuria33.01.08 (0.67 to 1.74)0.74733.31.07 (0.53 to 2.19)0.83850.02.33 (1.11 to 4.880.02131.50.98 (0.56 to 1.70)0.936
≥1 symptom†80.92.21 (1.23 to 3.67)0.00579.51.64 (0.73 to 3.72)0.22890.64.28 (1.26 to 14.6)0.01179.51.73 (0.93 to 3.24)0.083
Risk factor≥1 STICTNGTV
Per centOR (95% CI)p ValuePer centOR (95% CI)p ValuePer centOR (95% CI)p ValuePer centOR (95% CI)p Value
Age <21 years24.40.78 (0.47 to 1.30)0.34341.01.99 (0.99 to 3.98)0.04740.61.92 (0.90 to 4.08)0.08413.80.50 (0.26 to 0.97)0.035
Sexual debut ≤16 years20.01.83 (0.99 to 3.36)0.04825.53.57 (1.66 to 7.64)0.00125.02.12 (0.89 to 5.04)0.08319.21.53 (0.77 to 3.01)0.220
Extramarital sex (woman)25.21.63 (0.94 to 2.80)0.07633.32.26 (1.09 to 4.70)0.02528.11.67 (0.73 to 3.80)0.21728.81.91 (1.05 to 3.48)0.031
Extramarital sex (partner)30.41.83 (1.09 to 3.07)0.02138.52.35 (1.16 to 4.76)0.01534.41.88 (0.86 to 4.09)0.10928.81.48 (0.82 to 2.65)0.188
Smoking (maternal)29.61.75 (1.04 to 2.95)0.03233.31.84 (0.89 to 3.79)0.09343.83.00 (1.40 to 6.43)0.00326.01.26 (0.69 to 2.29)0.446
Urban area of residence50.21.94 (1.22 to 3.06)0.00451.31.57 (0.80 to 3.07)0.18362.52.58 (1.21 to 5.51)0.01149.31.51 (0.89 to 2.53)0.122
No formal education10.42.90 (1.17 to 7.16)0.01615.43.56 (1.28 to 9.93)0.0099.381.71 (0.48 to 6.18)0.40611.02.48 (0.98 to 6.28)0.047
Partner at STI risk43.51.87 (1.17 to 2.99)0.00841.01.41 (0.71 to 2.79)0.32043.81.59 (0.76 to 3.32)0.21845.21.84 (1.08 to 3.14)0.022
Factors that remained significantly associated with infection in multivariable analysesUrban residence (p=0.017)
Lack of formal education (p=0.015)
Perceives partner at risk of STI (p=0.012)
Early sexual debut (p=0.003)
Extramarital sex (woman) (p=0.024)
Lack of formal education (p=0.019)
Smoking (maternal) (p=0.011)
Urban residence (p=0.031)
Lack of formal education (p=0.030)
Perceives partner at risk of STI (p=0.014)
  • Note: p<0.05 highlighted in bold.

  • *One or more abnormalities of the following: smell, colour, quantity. All these patients were subsequently diagnosed with vaginal discharge syndrome and treated according to national guidelines.

  • †One or more of the following: abnormal discharge, abdominal pain, itch, dyspareunia, dysuria.

  • CT, C. trachomatis; NG, N. gonorrhoea; STI, sexually transmitted infection; TV, T. vaginalis.