Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population at HIV diagnosis at Dutch STI centres, 2009–2012

VariablesTotal (n=310)MSM (n=279)Heterosexual males (n=22)Heterosexual females (n=9)
Demographics
 Age (years; median, range)34 (17–71)34 (17–71)37 (25–52)27 (20–56)0.05
 Country of birth (the Netherlands)174 (56.1%)161 (57.7%)10 (45.5%)3 (33.3%)0.09
Ethnicity0.004
 West/North European169 (54.5%)158 (56.6%)10 (45.5%)1 (11.1%)
 Dutch ethnicity137 (44.2%)129 (46.2%)7 (31.8%)1 (11.1%)
 African20 (6.5%)15 (5.4%)2 (9.0%)3 (33.3%)
 Surinamese/Antillean*37 (11.9%)30 (10.8%)3 (13.6%)4 (44.4%)
 Other77 (24.8%)73 (26.2%)3 (13.6%)1 (11.1%)
 Unknown7 (2.3%)3 (1.1%)4 (18.2%)0
Higher educational level166 (53.5%)159 (57.0%)7 (31.8%)0 (0.0%)0.001
No health insurance29 (9.4%)22 (7.9%)3 (13.6%)4 (44.4%)0.003
Risk factors
 Steady partner181 (58.4%)165 (59.1%)10 (45.5%)6 (66.6%)0.7
 Casual partner(s) <6 months273 (88.1%)256 (91.8%)14 (63.6%)3 (33.3%)<0.001
 Number of casual partners <6 months (median, range)7 (1–650)7 (1–250)4 (1–30)425 (200–650)0.007
Previous HIV test ever0.3
 Yes246 (79.4%)225 (80.6%)16 (72.7%)5 (55.5%)
 No46 (14.8%)40 (14.3%)3 (13.6%)3 (33.3%)
 Unknown18 (5.8%)14 (5.0%)3 (13.6%)1 (11.1%)
Previous STI diagnosis207 (67%)192 (69%)13 (59.1%)2 (22.2%)0.1
Injected drugs ever8 (2.6%)8 (2.9%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0.4
Paid sex contacts43 (13.9%)35 (12.5%)5 (22.7%)3 (33.3%)0.02
Perception
 Disclosed HIV status203 (65.5%)186 (66.7%)12 (54.5%)5 (55.5%)0.2
 Perceived sufficient social support158 (51.0%)139 (49.8%)15 (68.2%)4 (44.4%)0.06
 Optimistic treatment expectations155 (50.0%)145 (52.0%)5 (22.7%)5 (55.5%)0.04
 Perceived HIV-related stigma150 (48.4%)130 (46.6%)11 (50.0%)9 (100%)0.2
Biological markers
 CD4+ cell count (median, IQR)540 (380–720)540 (390–720)500 (310–660)580 (270–825)0.7
 Log viral load (mean, SD)4.6 (SD=0.77)4.6 (SD=0.78)4.9 (SD=0.45)3.9 (SD=0.64)0.4
 Undetectable viral load10 (3.2%)10 (3.6%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)NA
  • *Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles are two former Dutch colonies; large migrant groups from these South American countries live in the Netherlands.

  • MSM, men who have sex with men; NA, not applicable.