Table 1

Description of studies reporting HPV prevalence among men in sub-Saharan Africa

AuthorsCountry and year of studyStudy designStudy population (symptoms yes/no)*Study size (N)Age (years)Anatomical siten/N (%) circumcisedn/N (%) HIV-positiveHPV detection methodPrevalence of any HPV n/N (%)Prevalence of HR HPV n/N (%)
Ng'ayo et al19Kenya, 2005Cross-sectionalMen working in the fishing industry (no symptoms)250Mean 31.3 (range 18–63)Glans, corona sulcus, shaft, scrotum and the perianal region18/250 (7.2%)64/250 (25.6%)PCR (PGMY09/11)144/250 (57.6%)106/250 (42.2%)
Auvert et al26South Africa, 2005–200621-month follow-up data from RCTMen recruited from the general population for an RCT of male circumcision (no symptoms)1683Mean 20.7 (median 21; IQR=19–22)Urethra863/1683 (51.3%)33/1683 (2.0%)PCR (Roche Amplicor HPV test)321/1683 (19.1%)291/1683 (17.3%)
Mbulawa et al13South Africa, 2006–2007Baseline data from RCTHeterosexual men recruited for investigations of genital HPV transmission (no symptoms)486Mean 38 (range 19–67)Shaft and glans, and the foreskin in uncircumcised men451/467 (96.6%)161/486 (33.1%)PCR (Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test)273/471 (58.0%)NA
Müller et al20South Africa, 2006–2008Cross-sectionalMen attending a sexual health clinic (symptoms)214Mean 29.8 (SD 7.50)Glans penis, coronal sulcus, penile shaft and, if present, anogenital warts54/208 (26.0%)104/210 (49.5%)PCR (Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test)166/214 (77.6%)NA
Smith et al12Kenya, 2002–2005Baseline data from RCTMen screened to participate in an RCT of male circumcision (no symptoms)2705Median 20 (range 17–28)Shaft, glans, coronal sulcus, and inner and external foreskin tissue0/2705 (0%)0/2705 (0%)PCR (GP5+/6+)1382/2705 (51.1%)NA
Firnhaber et al21South Africa, 2007–2008Cross-sectionalMen with penile warts attending a public sector antiretroviral treatment clinic (symptoms)74Mean 36.0 (SD±6.6)Prepuce, penile shaft and genital wart areas of the penis14/65 (21.5%)74/74 (100%)PCR (Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test)73/73 (100.0%)62/73 (84.9%)
Vardas et al25South Africa, 2004–2008Baseline data from RCTHeterosexual men participating in an HPV vaccine trial (no symptoms)518Mean: NA (range 16–24)Penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal areasNANAPCR (Real-time multiplex PCR)NANA
Veldhuijzen et al22Rwanda, 2007–2009Cross-sectionalMen participating in a case–control study assessing risk factors for infertility (no symptoms)166Median 31 (IQR 27–38)Shaft, scrotum, glans/sulcus corona, and foreskin in uncircumcised men38/166 (22.9)13/166 (7.8%)PCR (Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test)NA44/166 (26.5%)
Olesen et al23Tanzania, 2009Cross-sectionalMen from the general population (no symptoms)1813Mean 34.2 (median 30)Glans, preputial cavity (uncircumcised men), coronal sulcus (circumcised men), shaft, corpus1594/1809 (88.1%)140/1483 (9.4%)Non-PCR (Hybrid Capture 2) and PCR (LiPAv2) for genotyping372/1813 (20.5%)294/1813 (16.2%)
Tobian et al24Uganda, 2003–2006Baseline data from RCTMen enrolled into two RCTs of male circumcision for HIV and STI prevention (no symptoms)1399Mean: NA (range 15–49)Coronal sulcus and glans0/1399 (0%)421/1399 (30.1%)PCR (PGMY09/11)978/1399 (69.9%)690/1399 (49.3%)
Vogt et al18South Africa, 2011Cross-sectionalHeterosexual men attending an HIV testing centre (symptoms)34Median 33 (IQR 29–37)Coronal sulcus, glans and shaftNA3/34 (8.8%)PCR (PGMY09/11)20/34 (58.8%)10/34 (29.4%)
  • *Study populations categorised according to whether they had symptoms indicating HPV infection.

  • †Contributes with type-specific HPV data only.

  • HPV, human papillomavirus; HR, high-risk; NA, not available; RCT, randomised controlled trial.