Table 1

Mobility status by sociodemographic and sexual practices of men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India (n=1608)

CharacteristicsMSM (total sample)*Mobile†‡Mobile within district†‡Mobile across district†‡Mobile across state†‡
% (n)%%%
 East Godavari18.8 (303)32.18.920.82.5
 Guntur31.9 (513)
 Hyderabad35.1 (564)
 Visakhapatnam14.2 (228)24.57.615.41.5
Age (years)p=0.013p=0.075
 <2653.0 (853)23.75.513.15.1
 26+47.0 (755)29.27.416.35.4
 Mean (SD)27.2 (7.4)26.9 (6.8)26.2 (6.6)27.0 (6.8)27.7 (7.6)
 Illiterate17.7 (284)
 Literate82.3 (1324)27.015.816.05.2
Marital statusp=0.006p<0.001
 Never married62.2 (1001)28.56.814.07.7
 Ever married37. 8 (607)22.55.815.51.1
Primary source of income: sex workp<0.001p<0.001
 No93.4 (1502)24.66.614.83.1
 Yes6.6 (106)50.23.411.135.7
Kothi39.7 (639)34.85.619.59.7
Panthi20.0 (321)
 Double-decker12.8 (206)
 Bisexual24.3 (390)18.63.813.90.8
Hijra3.2 (52)40.90.512.927.5
Age at first sex with a manp<0.001p<0.001
 <=1525.9 (417)40.35.623.810.9
 16–1849.7 (799)
 19+24.4 (392)
Having multiple lifetime male sexual partnersp<0.001p<0.001
 <223.6 (379)
 2+76.4 (1229)30.87.516.66.7
Aware of Avahan HIV prevention programmep=0.019p<0.001
 No52.3 (841)23.84.911.87.2
 Yes47.7 (767)
Comprehensive correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS**p=0.013p=0.010
 No72.6 (1168)27.96.516.45.1
 Yes27.4 (440)
Voluntary HIV testingp=0.013p=0.006
 No67.6 (1087)28.16.416.74.9
 Yes32.4 (521)22.46.410.15.9
  • *Column percentage.

  • †Row percentage.

  • ‡Mobile: travelled outside their current place of residence and had sex at destination in the past year.

  • §Literate: could read and/or write with or without formal education.

  • ¶Self-identity: how the respondents identify themselves; kothi: predominantly receptive during anal sex; panthi: predominantly insertive during anal sex; double-decker: receptive and insertive during anal sex; bisexual: engage in homosexual and heterosexual relationships; hijra: male to female transgender.

  • **Comprehensive correct knowledge about HIV: correctly identified two major ways of preventing sexual transmission of HIV and rejected two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission.

  • ††p Value based on χ2 test of independence for categorical variables.