Table 2

Crude and multivariate logistic regression models for factors associated with access to HIV care and ARVs during pregnancy (n=756 pregnancies)

Enrolled in HIV careAccessed ARV drugs
FactorCategoryOR95% CIp (LRT)aOR95% CIp (LRT)OR95% CIp (LRT)aOR95% CIp (LRT)
Age*1.21.1 to 1.3<0.0011.1*1.0 to to 1.2<0.0011.11.0 to 1.20.05
Year of pregnancy2005–20061<0.0011<0.0011<0.0011 <0.001
2007–200826.82.8 to 260141.8 to 1097.11.1 to 484.20.7 to 27
2009–2010175375 to >500048135 to >50004155.1 to 325213.0 to 142
2011–20127109208 to >5000105165 to >500020721 to 2056729.6 to 550
Residence areaRural10.0210.0810.9
Roadside2.51.3 to to 111.00.5 to 2.0
Trading Centre1.60.8 to to to 1.9
Marital statusMarried now10.0910.0310.110.1
Never married0.30.1 to to to to 1.3
Married before0.80.4 to to to to 1.6
EducationAt least P510.210.7
P1–40.40.2 to to 1.9
no education1.00.6 to to 1.5
Other Christian0.80.4 to to 1.5
Muslim1.50.3 to to 11
Traditional0.50.1 to to 6.5
Other0.80.3 to to 2.2
Personal incomeFarming/manual10.710.6
incomeSome business1.00.5 to to 2.2
None1.40.6 to to 1.7
Gravidity (pregnancy number)11<0.0011<0.001
22.40.7 to to 6.7
32.30.7 to to 7.0
49.92.4 to 403.80.9 to 15
≥521.24.6 to 997.71.9 to 31
Any children diedNo10.310.1
diedYes1.40.8 to to 2.8
Duration of HIV infection≤2 years1<0.00110.0021<0.00110.002
>2–4 years3.31.4 to to to to 2.3
>4 years20.76.9 to 617.42.1 to 256.42.7 to 153.71.2 to 11
Prior VCTNo1<0.00110.091<0.00110.02
Yes6.73.5 to 132.20.9 to to 112.51.1 to 5.8
Knowledge of HIV transmissionNone1<0.00110.02
MTCT5.31.2 to 245.81.2 to 29
Other modes6.52.2 to 193.51.1 to 11
No prior report†2.61.0 to to 5.1
ART knowledge‡≤2 correct1<0.0011<0.001
3 correct0.90.3 to to 3.3
4–5 correct4.51.6 to 135.31.8 to 16
No prior report†0.20.1 to to 0.9
Relatives with/died from HIVNo10.110.02
Yes1.50.9 to to 3.6
Know someone taking ARTNo10.0110.02
Yes2.11.2 to to 3.7
Partner HIV statusUnknown §1<0.00110.02
Positive0.20.0 to to 1.4
Negative0.10.0 to to 1.1
No spousal link0.40.2 to to 0.9
  • *Age modelled as a continuous variable, no evidence for departure from linearity (p=0.4 LRT).

  • †No prior report: knowledge data point after pregnancy, or from an earlier serosurvey questionnaire lacking the same question.

  • ‡Statements: “Drugs can only slow down HIV illness not stop it”; “ART drugs are very dangerous and can kill people”; “ART drugs have to be used for life”; “ART drugs are available free of charge in Tanzania”; “Everyone who is infected with HIV needs drugs”.

  • §Unknown to the study investigators.

  • ART, antiretroviral treatment; ARV, antiretroviral; OR, OR (crude); aOR, adjusted OR; LRT, likelihood ratio test; MTCT, mother-to-child transmission; P1–5, primary level; VCT, voluntary counselling and testing.