Table 2

Summary of results for studies assessing condom use before and after testing for HIV

StudyCondom outcome measureSample sizeBaseline value of outcomeAbsolute change after testingFollow-up time (months)p Value
Consistent condom use
Gray et al19Consistent use in last year2474 (circumcised)32.6%3.1% decrease24NR
2522 (uncircumcised)33.7%3.0% decrease
Ruzagira et al21Always used in last year49516.4%10.6% decrease24NR
Wawer et al22Consistent use in last year648 (with circumcised partners)0.3%0.8% increase24NR
597 (with uncircumcised partners)0.8%0.2% decrease
Kiene et al20100% use with risky partner* in last 3 months131 (risky participants)NR7.6% increase3NR
Ramjee et al28100% use in last week95849.2%0.1% decrease12NR
Matambo et al32No unprotected sex in last 3 months38817.5%0.2% decrease30.84
No condom use
Gray et al19Not used in last year2474 (circumcised)39.5%3.1% decrease24NR
2522 (uncircumcised)37.3%1.2% decrease
Ruzagira et al21Not used in last year49540.0%40.0% decrease24NR
Wawer et al22Not used in last year648 (with circumcised partners)85.5%1.0% decrease24NR
597 (with uncircumcised partners)81.2%2.8% decrease
Ramjee et al28Not used in last week95845.4%0.7% increase12NR
Padian et al29% did not use condoms at any time in last 3 months2523 (intervention†)30%19% decrease24<0.0001
2522 (control†)30%25% decrease<0.0001
Unprotected sex
Bechange et al24% reporting risky sex in last 3 months‡236 (sexually active)30.9%16.6% decrease24NR
Mugwanya et al25 §% reporting unprotected sex with HIV+partner in last month4747 (taking pre-exposure prophylaxis)27.3%18% decrease24NR
Djomand et al31% reporting unprotected sex in last 6 months64 (males)66.7%10.0% decrease12NR
33 (females)60.6%17.1% decrease
Padian et al29% did not use condom at last sex2523 (intervention†)32%8% increase24NR
2522 (control†)33%15% decreaseNR
Measures of unprotected acts
Kiene et al20% of risky acts* that were unprotected in the last 3 months21393.1%0.8% increase
Kalichman et al27% of acts for which condoms not used in last 30 days29 (seroconverted after initial −ve test)33.1%24.0% decrease12<0.01
77 (persistently HIV−)33.3%22.6% decrease<0.01
Van Damme et al30Number of sex acts without condom in past week21201.9 actsRelative decrease by 24.2%12<0.001
Ritchie et al26Median sexual behaviour score¶72 (serodiscordant)0.0085Relative decrease of 100.0%9NR
28 (seroconcordant)0.024Relative decrease of 25.0%
  • Baseline percentages are calculated as the percentage of people reporting a given outcome. Changes after testing represent absolute changes unless explicitly reported as relative.

  • *Kiene et al20 risky sex is sex with a partner who is HIV-positive or of unknown serostatus.

  • †In Padian et al29 intervention participants received a diaphragm, lubricant and male condoms, while control arm participants received only male condoms.

  • ‡Bechange et al24 defined risky sex as “risky sex as intercourse with inconsistent condom use with an HIV-infected partner or a partner of unknown serostatus during the prior 3 months”.

  • §Additional data obtained from Baeten et al.39

  • ¶Ritchie et al define a sexual behaviour score by the number of different types of unprotected sex acts over the last 3 months weighted by the likelihood of HIV acquisition by the given type of sex act. Note that, unlike in Gray et al19 and Ramjee et al28 we include individuals reporting no sexual activity as having 100% condom use.

  • NR, not reported.