Table 1

HPV positivity in urine by location of genital warts and circumcision status

Any HPVHPV-6/11HR-HPV
n (%)Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)*
n (%)Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)*
n (%)Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR (95% CI)*
Location of warts in all men
 Distal penile warts† (N=44)29 (65.9)5.90 (3.11 to 11.23)5.34 (2.80 to 10.20)25 (56.8)40.20 (19.78 to 81.70)42.17 (20.01 to 88.85)4 (9.1)0.37 (0.13 to 1.04)0.32 (0.11 to 0.92)
 Proximal penile warts‡ (N=38)14 (36.8)1.78 (0.91 to 3.51)1.99 (1.00 to 3.97)5 (13.2)4.63 (1.68 to 12.78)4.54 (1.63 to 12.65)9 (23.7)1.13 (0.53 to 2.44)1.28 (0.59 to 2.78)
 No warts (N=852)210 (24.6)1 (ref)1 (ref)27 (3.2)1 (ref)1 (ref)183 (21.5)1 (ref)1 (ref)
Circumcision status
 Circumcised (N=94)12 (12.8)0.33 (0.18 to 0.63)0.37 (0.19 to 0.70)4 (4.3)0.56 (0.19 to 1.64)1.16 (0.37 to 3.67)8 (8.5)0.31 (0.14 to 0.65)0.28 (0.13 to 0.61)
 Uncircumcised (N=425)130 (30.6)1 (ref)1 (ref)31 (7.3)1 (ref)1 (ref)99 (23.3)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Unknown (N=415)111 (26.7)0.83 (0.61 to 1.12)0.90 (0.66 to 1.23)22 (5.3)0.71 (0.41 to 1.25)1.16 (0.59 to 2.26)89 (21.4)0.90 (0.65 to 1.24)0.56 (0.62 to 1.19)
  • HPV, human papillomavirus; HR-HPV, high-risk human papillomavirus; n represents the number of men tested positive for HPV; N represents the total number of men who had proximal penile warts, distal penile warts and no warts in each group; N  also represents the total number of men who were circumcised, uncircumcised or had unknown circumcision status in their respective groups. 

  • *Adjusted for location of warts and circumcision status.

  • †Location of distal penile warts that were in close contact with urine such as meatus, frenulum, prepuce, glans penis, corona or distal shaft.

  • ‡Location of proximal penile warts unlikely to be in contact with urine such as base of penis, proximal shaft, and midshaft or suprapubic region.