Table 2

Baseline plasma chemocytokine and cytokine concentrations in participants by syphilis stage and initial versus repeat syphilis presentation (prospective study)

ControlInitial primary/secondary syphilis*Repeat primary/secondary syphilis*p Value Initial latent syphilis*Reinfection latent syphilis*p Value
N=3025291126
IFNα9.88 (1.6–16.43)7.45 (0.8–31.4)7.45 (0.8–24.22)0.67320.42 (0.8–24.6)1.6 (0.8–16.43)0.263
IL-11.57 (1.57–1.57)1.57 (1.57–1.57)1.57 (1.57–1.57)0.4981.57 (1.57–1.57)1.57 (1.57–1.57)0.149
IL-61.26 (1.26–1.26)1.26 (1.26–1.26)1.26 (1.26–1.26)0.2931.26 (1.26–1.26)1.26 (1.26–1.26)0.131
IL-17A1.52 (1.52–1.52)1.52 (1.52–1.52)1.52 (1.52–1.52)0.8861.52 (1.52–1.52)1.52 (1.52–1.52)0.833
IFNγ2.18 (1.54–4.59)3.6 (1.54–6.78)3.43 (1.54–5.09)0.4182.57 (1.54–7.88)1.54 (1.54–4.59)0.306
IL-71.11 (1.11–1.11)1.11 (1.11–3.51)1.11 (1.11–1.11)0.0981.11 (1.11–2.06)1.11 (1.11–1.11)0.212
IL-12p401.02 (1.02–1.02)1.02 (1.02–1.02)1.02 (1.02–1.02)0.4451.02 (1.02–1.02)1.02 (1.02–1.02)0.678
IL-12p701.61 (1.61–1.61)1.61 (1.61–2.25)1.61 (1.61–1.61)0.2701.61 (1.61–1.72)1.61 (1.61–1.61)0.409
IL-81.6 (1.6–5.06)5.13 (2.37–6.68)3.42 (1.6–5.64)0.3272.54 (1.6–3.85)1.6 (1.6–3.15)0.238
IP-10589.4 (319.3–917.0)1033.4 (704.9–1346.6)885.3 (434.8–1421.9)0.356796.4 (443.9–1304.2)623.7 (430.2–925.8)0.445
MCP-1258.4 (179.0–307.7)252.9 (215.9–282.0)287.6 (220.3–308.6)0.215300.1 (204.6–309.3)230.2 (180.3–273.6)0.134
MIP-1α1.63 (1.63–3.65)1.86 (1.63–9.43)1.63 (1.63–5.15)0.3621.63 (1.63–1.63)1.63 (1.63–1.63)0.963
MIP-1β14.54 (0.99–22.23)27.45 (14.55–45.58)23.38 (11.67–35.71)0.33413.87 (4.92–22.23)15.72 (0.99–22.78)0.689
IL-41.58 (1.58–1.58)1.58 (1.58–1.58)1.58 (1.58–1.58)0.6461.58 (1.58–1.58)1.58 (1.58–1.58)0.149
IL-51.58 (1.58–1.58)1.58 (1.58–1.58)1.58 (1.58–1.58)0.2141.58 (1.58–1.58)1.58 (1.58–1.58)0.888
IL-101.53 (1.53–1.53)24.55 (8.49–43.8)10.51 (1.53–30.27)0.0739.84 (1.53–21.12)1.53 (1.53–4.3)0.020
CRP6.6 (0–8)12.3 (10.4–23.6)13.35 (8.35–27.05)0.8739.2 (0–20.4)7.25 (0–9.2)0.292
RPR 0 (0–0)64 (16–128)128 (64–128)0.01332 (2–64)64 (32–128)0.042
Delta RPR§ NA4 (2–6)4 (3–5)0.7132 (1–6)2 (2–3)0.551
Time since prior RPR (days) NA127 (91–156)160 (84–226)0.339161 (160–275)178 (149–211)0.429
Seroreversion 6 months (N (%))NA5 (21.7)0 (0)0.0184 (36.4)0 (0)0.006
Seroreversion 12 months (N (%))NA8 (53.3)2 (8)0.0025 (55.6)1 (4.5)0.004
Serofast at 6 months (N (%))NA5 (21.7)0 (0)0.0185 (45.5)2 (8.3)0.021
Serofast at 12 months (N (%))NA2 (9.1)0 (0)0.1962 (20)2 (8)0.561
PCR positive (%)0 (0)14 (56.0)10 (34.5)0.1702 (18.2)1 (3.8)0.205
  • Values are medians (IQR) except ‘PCR positive’ row which is N positive (%). Cyto/chemokine concentrations are expressed in pg/mL.

  • *p Value is depicted by ‘*’ and is for comparison with controls at baseline, *p<0.05, **p<0.005, ***p<0.0005.

  • †p Value is for comparison between PS and LS groups.

  • ‡An RPR of 64 is equal to an RPR titre of 1/64.

  • §Delta RPR: median (IQR) RPR titre drop between baseline and 6-month visit.

  • ¶Time in days between RPR at baseline visit and last preceding RPR result. The p value for comparing the ‘time since prior RPR' of all those with primary/secondary syphilis and all those with latent syphilis was 0.335.

  • CRP, C reactive protein; IFN, interferon gamma; IL, interleukin; LS, latent syphilis; MCP-1, Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein-1; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; PS, primary syphilis; RPR, rapid plasma reagin;