Table 1

Characteristics of included and excluded studies

CharacteristicIncluded recordsExcluded records
 General population69.500.0
 Clinic based or mixed3758.76557.5
 Female commercial sex workers57.9119.7
 Men who have sex with men812.765.3
 Pregnant women46.398.0
 Unclear/not reported00.087.1
Human Development Index of country
 Very high4469.86557.5
 Multiple countries11.621.8
 Women and men2539.71815.9
 Women only2336.56154.0
 Men only1523.83329.2
Sample size
 500–10003758.7NA NA
 1001–20001320.6NA NA
 2001–300046.3NA NA
 3001–400023.2NA NA
 4001–500023.2NA NA
 5001–10 00046.3NA NA
 >10 00011.6NA NA
Publication year
 Before 200000.087.1
Percent positive tests
 Median %, (range)8.1 (0.3–26.3)8.0 (0.0–63.4)
  • *Three records report on more than one study population: Netherlands 1 and Netherlands 2, Germany 2 and Germany 3, Honduras 3 and Guatemala 1.

  • NA, not applicable.