Table 1

HPV prevalence based on demographic characteristics

Variablesn (%)HPV prevalence (%)P value
Age category
 18–2476 (6.4)11.840.398*
 25–30239 (20.1)6.28
 31–40374 (31.4)8.02
 41–50296 (24.9)5.74
 51–60205 (17.2)7.32
Ethnicity
 Malay599 (50.3)5.51<0.006*
 Chinese272 (22.9)5.88
 Indian294 (24.7)11.90
 Others25 (2.1)8.00
Marital status
 Single/not married49 (4.1)8.16<0.002†
 Married1053 (88.5)6.36
 Divorced42 (3.5)11.90
 Widowed46 (3.9)21.74
Education
 None16 (1.3)12.500.386*
 Primary127 (10.7)10.24
 Secondary688 (57.8)6.10
 Tertiary308 (25.9)8.12
 Postgraduates51 (4.3)7.84
Employment
 Full-time638 (53.6)7.840.66*
 Part-time84 (7.1)8.33
 Temporarily unemployed/students37 (3.1)10.81
 Retired/disabled18 (1.5)5.56
 Work from home/housewives411 (34.5)5.84
 Missing2 (0.2)0
Household income
(Malaysian Ringgit)
 <1000180 (15.1)8.890.42*
 1000–2000343 (28.8)6.12
 2001–5000499 (41.9)7.41
 5001–10 000138 (11.6)7.24
 >10 00028 (2.4)7.14
 Missing2 (0.2)0
Current cigarette use
 No1116 (93.8)6.990.332†
 Yes69 (5.8)10.14
 Missing5 (0.4)20.00
Current alcohol consumption
 No1073 (90.2)6.990.436*
 Yes110 (9.2)9.09
 Missing7 (0.6)14.29
Pap smear (ever had one)
 No409 (34.4)9.780.031*
 Yes771 (64.8)5.71
 Don’t know8 (0.7)12.50
 Missing2 (0.1)50.00
Last Pap test results
 Normal711 (59.7)5.770.0015†
 Abnormal31 (2.6)0
 Don’t recall9 (0.8)0
 Never got results20 (1.7)15.00
 Never had pap409 (34.4)9.78
 Missing10 (0.8)20.00
Number of pregnancy
 0129 (10.8)10.080.426*
 1169 (14.2)8.28
 2208 (17.5)9.13
 3252 (21.2)6.35
 4169 (14.2)5.33
 5+261 (21.9)5.75
 Missing2 (0.2)0
Hormone contraceptive used ever
 No817 (68.7)7.220.903*
 Yes365 (30.6)6.85
 Missing8 (0.7)25.00
Current IUD used
 No1133 (95.2)7.240.769†
 Yes47 (4.0)4.26
 Missing10 (0.8)20.00
HPV vaccination status
 No1118 (94.0)7.070.763†
 Yes43 (3.6)4.65
 Missing29 (2.4)17.24
  • Missing data were not included in the analysis.

  • *P value generated using χ2 test.

  • †P value generated using Fisher exact test.

  • HPV, human papillomavirus; IUD, intra-uterine device.