Table 1

Summary of studies

Authors, year and countryStudy populationNo of participants/no of HIV seroconversionsHIV detection methodTV detection methodMain finding
Delany-Moretlwe et al, 16  2011, South AfricaHIV-negative women2451/110Not statedNot statedBaseline TV+ more likely to seroconvert compared with TV−.
IRR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.9).
Ghys et al, 17  2001, Ivory CoastFSW HIV negative284/26ELISA+WBWet prepTV+ women more likely to seroconvert than TV−.
aRR* 2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 6.2).
Hester and Kennedy,18, 2003, ZambiaWomen (serodiscordant couples)90/45Dot-WBWet prepHIV acquisition among TV+ women at baseline compared with TV− women at baseline.
OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.76).
Kinuthia et al, 19 2015, KenyaWomen at a prenatal clinic1304/25NAATsWet prepHIV acquisition for women with TV.
aHR 1.14 (95% CI 0.16 to 8.16).
Kleinschmidt et al, 14 2007, South AfricaWomen attending FP clinics551/23HIV rapid testCulture (Daimonds)TV+ women more likely to acquire HIV-1 than TV− women.
aHR 4.79 (95% CI 1.01 to 22.78).
Laga et al,3 1993, Democratic Republic of CongoFSW HIV negative431/68EIA+WBWet prepTV+ women more likely to seroconvert than TV− women.
AOR 1.9 (95% CI 0.9 to 4.1).
Laga et al,20 1994, Democratic Republic of CongoFSW HIV negative531/70EIA+WBWet prepTV+ women more likely to seroconvert than TV− women.
RR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.8).
Martin et al,21 1998, KenyaFSW HIV negative799/111EIAWet prepHIV acquisition for FSW with TV.
aHR 1.2 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.2)
Masese et al,22 2015, KenyaFSW HIV negative1964/325EIAWet prepHIV acquisition for FSW with TV.
aHR 1.41 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.02).
Mavedzenge et al,23 2010, Zimbabwe and South AfricaWomen (general population)4948/309HIV rapid, EIANAATsHIV acquisition with those with TV.
aHR 2.05 (95% CI 1.05 to 4.02)
McClelland et al,24 2005, KenyaFSW1215/238EIAWet prepHIV acquisition for FSW with TV.
HR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.7).
McClelland et al,25 2007, KenyaFSWs HIV-1–seronegative1335/261EIAWet prepHIV acquisition for FSW with TV.
aHR 1.52 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.24).
Myer et al,26 2006, South AfricaWomen (general population)3570/85Abbott HIV 1/2 KitWet prepBaseline TV +women more likely to seroconvert than TV− women.
cHR 1.84 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.32).
Nagot et al,27 2005, Burkina FasoFSW377/19EIAWet prepHIV acquisition for FSW with TV.
HR 0.71 (95% CI 0.22 to 2.29).
Quinn et al,28 2000, UgandaSerodiscodant couples414/90EIA+WBCulture (InPouch)HIV acquisition when a person has TV.
aRR* 1.27 (95% CI 0.65 to 2.35).
Taha et al,29 1998, MalawiHIV-negative postnatal women1196/124EIA+WBWet prepTV+ women more likely to seroconvert than TV– women.
aRR 1.38 (95% CI 0.75 to 2.56).
Van De Wijgert et al,30 2009, Zimbabwe and UgandaWomen at FP and mother–child health clinics4439/189ELISA, confirmed by rapid test or PCR or WBWet prepTV associated with HIV if it is detected in current and previous visit to HIV seroconversion.
aHR 1.53 (95% CI 0.21 to 11.01).
Van Der Pol et al,13 2008, Uganda and ZimbambweFP clinic and FSW HIV−4531/213NAATsWet prep and NAATsTV+ women at previous visit were more likely to seroconvert than women without TV.
AOR 2.74 (95% CI 1.25 to 6.00) FP &FSW AOR 3.3 (95% CI 1.36 to 7.85) FP only.
Vandepitte et al,31 2013, UgandaFSW646/42HIV rapid, confirmed by ELISACultureTV increase likelihood of HIV acquisition with aHR 2.72 (95% CI 1.27 to 5.84).
  • All studies were cohort studies, except Hester & Kennedy18 (2003) and Laga et al.3 (1993), which were nested case-control studies. Studies are arranged alphabetically according to the name of the first author and then year of publication.

  • aHR, adjusted HR; AOR, adjusted OR; aRR*, adjusted rate ratio; ARR, adjusted risk ratio; cHR, crude hazard ratio; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; FP, family planning; FSW, female sex workers; IRR, independent risk ratio; NAATs, Nnucleic acid amplification tests; TV, Trichomonas vaginalis; WB, western blot.