Table 3

Correlates of all infant mortality among HIV-uninfected mothers

CharacteristicNInfant deaths/PYIncidence
(per 100 PY)
Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
HR (95% CI)P valuesHR (95% CI)P values*
Overall120234/859.74.0 (2.8–5.5)
Maternal demographics
 Age at enrolment1202
  <20 years13/243.55.3 (3.1–9.2)1.59 (0.80 to 3.15)0.188
  ≥20 years21/616.23.4 (2.2–5.2)Ref
 Level of education1202
  ≤8 years21/551.33.8 (2.5–5.8)0.91 (0.46 to 1.82)0.792
  >8 years13/308.44.2 (2.4–7.3)Ref
 Marital status1202
  Unmarried8/196.04.1 (2.0–8.2)1.08 (0.50 to 2.36)0.838
  Married26/663.63.9 (2.7–5.75)Ref
 Crowded living conditions1200
  ≥3 people/room9/156.95.7 (3.0–11.0)1.60 (0.75 to 3.43)0.223
  <3 people/room25/702.03.6 (2.4–5.3)Ref
 Travel time to clinic993
  ≥1 hour8/145.15.5 (2.8–11.0)2.24 (0.94 to 5.33)0.0692.29 (0.95 to 5.54)0.065
  <1 hour14/563.72.5 (1.5–4.2)Ref
  Perinatal characteristics
 Birth order1202
  Firstborn20/396.65.0 (3.3–7.8)1.69 (0.86 to 3.34)0.130
  Birth order >114/463.03.0 (1.8–5.1)Ref
 Birth interval†
  <2 years8/108.47.4 (3.7–14.8)3.19 (1.29 to 7.90)0.0122.80 (1.07 to 7.32)0.036
  ≥2 years11/463.92.4 (1.3–4.3)Ref
 Preterm birth1158
  <37 weeks gestation15/198.87.5 (4.5–12.5)2.78 (1.39 to 5.57)0.0042.86 (1.37 to 5.96)0.005
  ≥37 weeks gestation17/628.02.7 (1.7–4.4)Ref
 Delivery site1202
  Home15/325.54.6 (2.8–7.6)1.30 (0.66 to 2.55)0.455
  Facility-based19/534.23.6 (2.3–5.6)Ref
 Malaria diagnosis during pregnancy‡
  Yes6/60.89.9 (4.4–22.0)2.70 (1.12 to 6.50)0.0272.50 (0.95 to 6.58)0.064
  No28/798.93.5 (2.4–5.1)Ref
Genital infections at enrolment
 Any genital infection§1071
  Yes14/427.03.3 (1.9–5.5)0.70 (0.34 to 1.43)0.326
  No16/340.34.7 (2.9–7.7)Ref
Chlamydia trachomatis 1199
  Yes4/45.58.8 (3.3–23.4)2.38 (0.86 to 6.57)0.0932.29 (0.79 to 6.67)0.129
  No30/812.73.7 (2.6–5.3)Ref
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1199
  Yes3/19.315.6 (5.0–48.3)4.14 (1.28 to 13.35)0.0173.83 (1.16 to 12.68)0.028
  No31/838.93.7 (2.6–5.3)Ref
Trichomonas vaginalis 1202
  Yes1/59.11.7 (0.2–12.0)0.42 (0.06 to 2.90)0.378
  No33/800.54.1 (2.9–5.8)Ref
 Syphilis948
  Yes1/6.515.3 (2.2–108.6)3.82 (0.54 to 27.25)0.181
  No26/672.83.9 (2.6–5.7)Ref
 Bacterial vaginosis
  Yes5/188.22.7 (1.1–6.4)0.60 (0.23 to 1.55)0.292
  No29/665.4.4 (3.0–6.3)Ref
 Vaginal yeast1202
  Yes6/217.42.8 (1.2–6.1)0.64 (0.27 to 1.55)0.324
  No28/642.34.4 (3.0–6.3)Ref
 Genital ulcers1200
  Yes1/10.59.5 (1.3–67.8)2.38 (0.33 to 17.12)0.387
  No33/848.53.9 (2.8–5.5)Ref
  • *Cox proportional hazards p-value adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, study site and preterm birth. Multivariate models for genital infections were not adjusted for preterm birth because preterm birth may be on the casual pathway between genital infections and infant mortality

  • †Among women who had previous pregnancies. Birth interval defined as time between delivery date and most recent previous pregnancy end date.

  • ‡Malaria diagnosis at any time during pregnancy

  • §Genital infections include C.trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T.vaginalis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginal yeast and genital ulcers