Table 1

Characteristics of HIV-uninfected mothers*

N (%) or Median (IQR)
Maternal demographics
 Age, years22(19–27)
 Education, completed years8(7–10)
 Crowded living conditions†224(18%)
 Travel time to clinic >1 hour207(21%)
Perinatal characteristics
 Birth interval <2 years‡157(19%)
 Gestational age at enrolment, weeks27(22-31)
 Gestational age at birth, weeks§39(37-41)
 Preterm birth§,¶286(24%)
 Malaria diagnosis during pregnancy§,**92(8%)
Genital infections at enrolment
 Any genital infection††604(55%)
Chlamydia trachomatis 65(5%)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29(2%)
Trichomonas vaginalis 79(6%)
 Bacterial vaginosis271(22%)
 Vaginal yeast302(25%)
 Genital ulcers17(1%)
  • Genital infections include C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginal yeast and genital ulcers.

  • *Missing data not shown. All variables had <10% missingness.

  • †Defined as ≥3 people per room.

  • ‡Among women who had previous pregnancies.

  • §Current pregnancy.

  • ¶Defined as gestational age at birth <37 weeks.

  • **Malaria diagnosis at any time during pregnancy.