Table 3

Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and association with depression and anxiety symptoms in women and heterosexual men

Depression symptoms: PHQ9 ≥10Anxiety symptoms: GAD7 ≥10
n/N (%)aPR*n/N (%)aPR*
Gender
 Male33/470 (7.0)121/470 (4.5)1
 Female100/676 (14.8)2.08 (1.40–3.08)79/676 (11.7)2.82 (1.74–4.57)
P value<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.01
Age (years)
 <2554/376 (14.4)138/376 (10.1)1
 25–2932/292 (11.0)1.07 (0.69–1.58)24/292 (8.2)1.18 (0.72–1.93)
 30–3930/300 (10.0)0.83 (0.53–1.30)23/300 (7.7)0.90 (0.54–1.49)
 40+16/154 (10.4)0.94 (0.55–1.61)14/154 (9.1)1.18 (0.67–2.08)
P value0.28†0.770.700.74
Ethnicity
 White26/309 (8.4)121/309 (6.8)1
 Black African65/550 (11.8)1.39 (0.88–2.22)47/550 (8.5)1.11 (0.65–1.88)
 Black Caribbean23/168 (13.7)1.36 (0.80–2.31)18/168 (10.7)1.24 (0.68–2.28)
 Other ethnicities17/105 (16.2)1.81 (1.00–3.28)12/105 (11.4)1.53 (0.76–3.09)
P value0.110.250.350.67
Study region
 London76/761 (10.0)159/761 (7.8)1
 Not London57/385 (14.8)1.36 (0.97–1.90)41/385 (10.6)1.28 (0.85–1.91)
P value0.020.080.100.24
UK born
 UK born65/506 (12.8)149/506 (9.7)1
 Non-UK born67/610 (11.0)0.82 (0.56–1.19)49/610 (8.0)0.83 (0.53–1.29)
P value0.240.30.330.41
Relationship status
 In a relationship75/768 (9.8)164/768 (8.3)1
 Not in a relationship58/378 (15.3)1.73 (1.25–2.39)36/378 (9.5)1.27 (0.85–1.89)
P value<0.010.0010.50.25
Work status
 Employed68/697 (9.8)153/697 (7.6)1
 Student36/261 (13.8)1.12 (0.71–1.76)22/261 (8.4)0.90 (0.51–1.56)
 Unemployed/other§27/163 (16.6)1.45 (0.95–2.21)23/163 (14.1)1.52 (0.95–2.45)
P value0.02†0.220.020.14
Education
 University degree66/654 (10.1)146/654 (7.0)1
 Below university67/491 (13.6)1.28 (0.93–1.78)54/491 (11.0)1.47 (1.01–2.14)
P value0.070.170.020.04
Housing
 Home owner11/155 (7.1)110/155 (6.5)1
 Rented79/682 (11.6)1.57 (0.85–2.91)59/682 (8.7)1.29 (0.67–2.50)
 Unstable41/292 (14.0)1.66 (0.86–3.26)28/292 (9.6)1.33 (0.63–2.78)
P value0.090.310.530.73
Reports sufficient money for basic needs
 All the time43/593 (7.3)137/593 (6.2)1
 Most of the time39/313 (12.5)1.50 (0.97–2.32)22/313 (7.0)0.92 (0.53-1/59)
 Some of the time27/149 (18.1)2.22 (1.39–3.53)19/149 (12.8)1.69 (0.97–2.94)
 No21/77 (27.3)3.79 (2.36–6.08)19/77 (24.7)3.65 (2.13–6.25)
P value<0.01<0.001<0.001<0.001
Recent recreational drug use‡
 No98/896 (10.9)176/895 (8.5)1
 Yes35/250 (14.0)1.47 (1.02–2.13)24/250 (9.6)1.32 (0.83–2.09)
P value0.180.040.580.24
Alcohol—AUDIT-C ≥6
 No117/1051 (11.1)194/1051 (8.9)1
 Yes16/95 (16.8)1.95 (1.20–3.16)6/95 (6.3)0.89 (0.34–2.05)
P value0.1<0.010.390.79
Smoking status
 Non-smoker68/664 (10.2)155/664 (8.3)1
 Ex-smoker20/212 (9.4)1.06 (0.66–1.70)11/212 (5.2)0.71 (0.38–1.33)
 Current smoker45/248 (18.1)1.92 (1.32–2.79)32/248 (12.9)1.59 (1.01–2.46)
P value<0.01<0.010.010.02
  • *Adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education and study region.

  • †Test for linear trend.

  • ‡Within the last 3 months.

  • §Other includes unable to work due to long-term health condition, carers and retired.

  • AUDIT-C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption; GAD, General Anxiety Disorder; PHQ, Patient Health Questionnaire; aPR, adjusted prevalence ratio.