Table 2

HIV prevalence overall and in subgroups of participants recruited in the two rounds of the biobehavioural survey of FSWs in Iran

Variables2010 survey2015 surveyP value*
n (%)HIV prevalence (95% CI)P valuen (%)HIV prevalence (95% CI)P value
Overall4.0 (2.0 to 7.8)†13322.1 (0.9 to 4.6)‡0.007
Age group0.0860.3200.091
 <2518201360.7 (0.1 to 5.3)
 ≥255605.4 (2.7 to 10.2)11942.2 (0.9 to 5.0)
Highest educational level0.2270.0290.385
 Illiterate1167.8 (3.2 to 17.7)1335.3 (2.1 to 12.3)
 Primary or below2233.1 (1.1 to 8.9)3732.1 (0.9 to 5.2)
 Middle school and above4093.4 (1.4 to 8.0)8261.5 (0.5 to 4.2)
Current marital status0.2920.5430.835
 Married2903.8 (1.4 to 10.1)4401.4 (0.6 to 3.3)
 Single/divorced/widowed3803.4 (1.6 to 7.3)6842.2 (1.0 to 4.8)
 Temporarily married (Sigheh)758.0 (3.1 to 19.2)2052.9 (0.5 to 16.2)
Received free male condom in the last year0.0860.0670.522
 Yes2805.3 (2.5 to 10.7)9882.5 (1.0 to 6.1)
 No4562.1 (0.8 to 5.8)3410.6 (0.2 to 2.1)
Frequency of male condom use with all sex partners in the past month0.4470.0970.706
 Never1831.6 (0.4 to 6.0)3141.6 (0.8 to 3.1)
 Occasionally2634.2 (1.4 to 12.0)6631.7 (0.6 to 4.5)
 Always1402.9 (0.8 to 9.6)3473.2 (1.3 to 7.8)
Age at first sex debut0.5730.6320.129
 <15220273.7 (0.5 to 23.9)
 15–191542.6 (0.7 to 9.7)2172.8 (0.7 to 10.8)
 20+5044.6 (2.2 to 9.3)10471.8 (0.8 to 4.0)
Number of clients in the past month0.242<0.0010.865
 04094.9 (2.3 to 10.0)2942.0 (0.9 to 4.6)
 1–51112.7 (0.9 to 8.1)4353.1 (1.2 to 7.4)
 6+1882.1 (0.5 to 8.3)3900.5 (0.2 to 1.5)
Number of non-paying sex partner in the past month0.1970.9520.279
 05044.7 (2.4 to 9.4)6262.1 (0.9 to 4.8)
 +12082.4 (0.7 to 7.8)6942.0 (0.7 to 5.6)
Lifetime non-injection drug use0.4790.0030.242
 Yes5524.2 (1.9 to 9.0)7952.8 (1.2 to 6.1)
 No1953.1 (1.5 to 6.3)5360.9 (0.3 to 2.7)
Lifetime injection drug use0.001<0.0010.425
 Yes1029.8 (4.4 to 20.5)818.6 (3.3 to 20.6)
 No6452.9 (1.4 to 5.9)12491.6 (0.7 to 3.8)
Type of recruitment
 Facility-based11851.9 (0.8 to 4.5)0.695
 From street-based venues1522.6 (0.5 to 13.5)
  • *P values are for test of homogeneity of the two rounds in 2010 and 2015; non-significant p value (>0.05) means there is no heterogeneity between the two rounds.

  • †There were 30 positive cases when the total prevalence was computed. But 12 of the positive FSWs did not experience sexual contact during the last month and 3, 3, 1, 1 and 1 of the positive FSWs did not have information for age at first sex work, number of clients in the last month, number of non-paying sex partner in the last month, lifetime drug use and lifetime drug injection, respectively.

  • ‡There were 28 positive cases when the total prevalence was computed. But one of the positive FSWs did not have information for other factors, so the subanalysis was done for 27 positive cases. However, for the total prevalence we used 28 cases to estimate the overall estimate.

  • FSWs, female sex workers.