Table 1

Results of bivariate and multivariate analyses regressing rates of sexually transmitted infections among Black people (per 100 000) on logged no. Black people¶ killed by police in 75 large MSAs—2016*

Models by outcomeBivariateMultivariable†
B (CI)
B (CI)
B (CI)
Per cent increase in the median STI rate per 1 unit increase in the mean no. Black persons killed by police
Logged syphilis rate‡0.07 (−0.25 to 0.39)0.14§ (−0.41 to 0.70)0.17§ (−0.31 to 0.65)7.5%
Gonorrhoea rate−0.08 (−0.37 to 0.21)0.14§ (−0.30 to 0.57)39.36§ (−85.6 to 164.3)4.0%
Chlamydia rate−0.16§ (−0.42 to 0.10)0.02 (−0.4 to 0.45)13.06 (−210.0 to 237.0)0.5%
  • Bivariate and multivariable models include state covariate.

  • *The outcome is 2016 STI data. We lagged covariates 1−2 years because we did not expect an instantaneous effect on the outcome.

  • †Multivariable models controlled for MSA-level covariates selected at bivariate stage among demographic (total and Black population size, population density, % of population aged 15−29, Black adults sex ratio, Black isolation index, % female-headed households), socioeconomic (Gini index, affordable housing; Black population status and Black/White disparity in employment, poverty and educational attainment), criminal justice and policing (police per 1000 population, hard drug arrest rate, violent crime rate, police expenditures per capita, % incarcerated) and access to services (insurance rate, Government expenditures on health and on housing and community development) domains. See online supplementary table S4 for the list of covariates selected for each model and their bivariate and multivariable model parameters.

  • ‡Variable’s distribution was skewed and natural log transformed to approximately conform to the normal distribution.

  • §Significant at the a priori level. Confounders proceeded to the next stage of analysis, the multivariate model, if they changed the no. Black people killed by police/STI relationship by >10% in bivariate models. In the multivariate model, the criteria for substantive significance was a standardised coefficient >|0.10|.

  • ¶Variable natural log transformed to linearie its relationship with the outcome.

  • MSA, metropolitan statistical area; STI, sexually transmitted infection.