Table 3

Risk factors for genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection among school-going, sexual-experienced adolescents, in urban (URB) and rural Indigenous Comarca Ngäbe-Buglé (CNB) regions, Panama, 2015–2018

All participants (panel A)Female participants (panel B)Male participants (panel C)
CT positive
n/N (%)
OR*
(95% CI)
P valueAOR*
(95% CI)
P valueCT positive
n/N (%)
OR
(95% CI)
P valueAOR*
(95% CI)
P valueCT positive
n/N (%)
OR
(95% CI)
P valueAOR* (95% CI)P value
Sex 3.03 (2.15 to 4.27) <0.01 2.87 (1.62 to 5.10) <0.01
 Male83/909 (9.1)
 Female220/1015 (21.6)
Region
(F: n=1016, M: n=910)
0.80 (0.52 to 1.23)0.300.69 (0.43 to 1.12)0.140.97 (0.49 to 1.91)0.921.29 (0.67 to 2.50)0.44
 URB233/1409 (16.5)181/792 (22.9)33/619 (8.6)
 CNB70/515 (13.6)39/224 (17.4)31/291 (10.7)
Age, years
(F: n=1014, M: n=907)
1.14 (1.02 to 1.28) <0.01 1.20 (0.97 to 1.45)0.09 1.14 (1.03 to 1.99) 0.05 1.06 (0.82 to 1.36)0.67 1.32 (1.06 to 1.63) 0.01 1.34 (0.89 to 2.00)0.17
 14–1528/221 (12.7)1125/132 (18.9)13/89 (3.4) 1
 16–17126/890 (14.2)1.11 (0.71 to 1.75)1.29 (0.45 to 3.64)95/490 (19.4)1.03 (0.62 to 1.70)31/400 (7.8)2.43 (0.71 to 8.26)
 18–19147/810 (18.2)1.47 (0.94 to 2.30)1.83 (0.66 to 5.05)99/392 (25.3)1.39 (0.84 to 2.32)48/418 (11.5) 3.69 (1.10 to 12.33)
Ethnicity
(F: n=969, M: n=868)
0.82 (0.56 to 1.22)0.330.70 (0.44 to 1.09)0.120.70 (0.17 to 2.89)0.621.30 (0.71 to 2.41)0.394
 Latino/mixed Indigenous/African/Asian descent/white216/1300 (16.6)168/728 (23.1)48/572 (8.4)
 Indigenous only74/537 (13.8)42/241 (17.4)32/296 (10.8)
Number of lifetime partners
(F: n=688, M: n=592)
1.35 (1.14 to 1.60) <0.01 1.43 (1.08 to 2.07) 0.02 1.65 (1.34 to 2.03) <0.01 1.43 (1.03 to 1.99) 0.02 1.35 (0.97 to 1.89) 0.08 1.30 (0.87 to 1.94)0.16
 154/448 (12.1)1143/281 (15.3)1111/167 (6.6)1
 258/268 (21.6) 2.02 (1.34 to 3.05)1.69 (0.86 to 3.32)48/162 (29.6) 2.38 (1.48 to 3.82)1.61 (0.74 to 3.44)10/106 (9.4)1.48 (0.60 to 3.62)
 3 or more119/564 (21.1) 1.94 (1.36 to 2.76) 2.10 (1.18 to 3.73)82/245 (33.5) 2.82 (1.84 to 4.32) 2.20 (1.09 to 4.07)37/319 (11.6)1.87 (0.92 to 3.75)
Recently sexually active (sex in past month)
(F: n=1016, M: n=910)
1.23 (0.90 to 1.67)0.191.33 (0.69 to 2.53)0.391.38 (0.92 to 2.07)0.121.03 (0.43 to 2.47)0.950.83 (0.50 to 1.36)0.46
 No68/514 (13.2)39/233 (16.7)30/283 (10.6)
 Yes235/1410 (16.7)181/783 (23.1)54/627 (8.6)
Condom use
(F: n=750, M: n=612)
0.78 (0.53 to 1.14)0.200.58 (0.28 to 1.20)0.150.95 (0.61 to 1.48)0.830.45 (0.19 to 1.10) 0.08 0.46 (0.18 to 1.24)0.14
 Never or only sometimes213/1122 (19.0)157/620 (25.3)56/502 (11.2)
 Always38/240 (15.8)32/130 (24.6)6/110 (5.6)
Same-sex sex
(F: n=826, M: n=739)
0.51 (0.23 to 1.13)0.100.35 (0.10 to 1.19)0.090.61 (0.20 to 1.83)0.380.60 (0.18 to 2.01)0.41
 No255/1488 (17.1)190/801 (23.7)65/687 (9.5)
 Yes7/77 (9.1)4/25 (16.0)3/52 (5.8)
Forced sex
(F: n=978, M: n=858)
0.95 (0.62 to 1.47)0.830.91 (0.54 to 1.55)0.740.99
(0.45 to 2.15)
0.97
 Never254/1627 (15.6)186/860 (21.6)68/767 (8.9)
 One or more times28/240 (14.8)20/98 (20.4)8/91 (8.8)
Pregnancy
(F: n=478, M: n=883)
3.39 (2.26 to 5.01) <0.01 1.17 (0.64 to 2.10)0.61 2.79 (1.72 to 4.54) <0.01 1.89 (1.05 to 3.43) 0.04 2.36
(0.96 to 5.84)
0.061.10 (0.30 to 4.05)0.89
 Nulligravidae123/1201 (10.2)49/355 (13.8)74/846 (8.8)
 1 or more pregnancies45/160 (28.1)38/123 (30.9)7/37 (18.9)
  • Values in bold are significant at p<0.05.

  • *Adjusted for region and age of participant. AOR in panel A are adjusted for region, age and sex. AOR in panels B and C are region and age.

  • AOR, adjusted OR.;