Table 1

Baseline characteristics and prevalence of any STI and by STI type among pregnant women attending first antenatal visit in South Africa (2016–2019)

TotalAll, n (%)Any STI, n (%)CT*, n (%)TV*, n (%)NG*, n (%)Coinfections†, n (%)
669250 (37)175 (26)123 (18)38 (6)79 (12)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Maternal age (years), median (IQR)30 (25–34)29 (24–33)29 (24–32)29 (24–33)26 (23–30)27 (23–31)
GA at booking (weeks), median (IQR)18 (13–24)20 (14–24)20 (13–25)19 (15–24)20 (12–24)20 (14–26)
Education level completed
 Primary249 (37)106 (42)76 (43)55 (45)16 (42)36 (46)
 Secondary389 (58)132 (53)93 (53)61 (49)22 (58)42(53)
 Tertiary (college/university)31 (5)12 (5)6 (4)7 (6)0 (0)1 (1)
Relationship with father of child
 Married/cohabitating333 (50)102 (41)74 (42)46 (37)11 (29)27 (34)
 Not married/non-cohabitating309 (46)133 (53)93 (53)66 (54)24 (63)46 (58)
 No relationship27 (4)15 (6)8 (5)11 (9)3 (8)6 (8)
Employment status
 Formal employment228 (34)71 (29)54 (31)36 (29)12 (32)28 (35)
 Informal employment20 (3)8 (3)7 (4)2 (2)0 (0)1 (1)
 Unemployed/attending school421 (63)171 (68)114 (65)85 (69)26 (68)50 (63)
Site
 Cape Town242 (36)78 (31)49 (28)37 (30)14 (37)21 (27)
 Tshwane District427 (64)172 (69)126 (72)86 (70)24 (63)58 (73)
Clinical characteristics in this pregnancy
HIV status
 Negative135 (20)37 (15)26 (16)14 (11)3 (8)8 (10)
 Positive534 (80)213 (85)147 (84)109 (89)35 (92)71 (90)
Any STI symptoms
 No519 (78)190 (75)127 (73)85 (69)25 (66)49 (62)
 Yes150 (22)60 (24)48 (27)38 (31)13 (34)30 (38)
Sexual behaviour during pregnancy
 Vaginal sex596 (89)220 (88)154 (88)107 (87)30 (79)66 (84)
 Oral sex39 (6)14 (6)10 (6)7 (6)4 (11)6 (8)
 Anal sex16 (2)5 (2)5 (3)2 (2)3 (8)4 (5)
 2+ sex partners in the past 3 months18 (3)6 (2)3 (2)4 (3)0 (0)1 (1)
Suspect partner of having another sex partner
 No302 (45)101 (40)67 (38)53 (43)14 (37)29 (37)
 Yes228 (34)94 (38)67 (38)43 (35)18 (47)32 (41)
 Don’t know133 (20)51 (20)39 (23)23 (19)5 (13)16 (20)
 N/A‡6 (1)4 (2)2 (1)4 (3)1 (3)2 (3)
Partner’s serostatus
 Concordant HIV-negative93 (14)26 (10)21 (12)8 (7)3 (8)6 (8)
 Concordant HIV-positive134 (20)60 (24)38 (22)34 (28)11 (29)21 (26)
 Serodiscordant100 (15)36 (15)20 (11)21 (17)7 (18)10 (13)
 Serostatus unknown342 (51)128 (51)96 (55)60 (49)17 (45)42 (53)
  • *The total includes multiple infections of CT, NG and/or TV.

  • †Coinfection with at least two infections of CT, TV or NG.

  • ‡Refers to women who did not have a partner; they were not in a relationship.

  • CT, Chlamydia trachomatis; GA, gestational age; n, number of participants; N/A, not applicable; NG, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; TV, Trichomonas vaginalis.