Table 2

Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted shigella in men who have sex with men (MSM)

  • Residing in a capital city or urban area

  • Living with HIV.

  • Living with HIV and having a high plasma HIV viral load (not taking antiretroviral therapy).

  • Living with HIV and having a low CD4 count (not taking antiretroviral therapy).

  • Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella spp.

  • Having an STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, acute hepatitis C).

  • Seroadaptive (HIV) sexual behaviour.

  • Using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

  • Using social media to meet sexual partners, access sex parties and source chemsex drugs.

  • Visiting sex on premises venues.

  • Using recreational drugs (mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine, GHB/GBH, PDE5 inhibitors, ecstasy, poppers, marijuana and injecting drug use.

  • Oro-anal sexual behaviour (rimming).

  • Condomless anal sex.

  • Fisting (insertive an receptive) and coprophilia.

  • Multiple non-regular sexual partners.

  • Attending sex parties.

  • Group sexual behaviours.

  • GBL, γ-butyrolactone; GHB, γ-hydroxybutyrate.