Table 1

Study design and risk factors for sexually transmitted shigella in men who have sex with men (MSM)

StudyPublication yearSample size, patient demographicsStudy designPopulation (MSM/mixed)Risk factor(s) with sexually transmitted shigella
Kuhn et al (Denmark)14 2021n=64
Median age=40
Case–control studyMSM versus non-MSM case controlMSM with shigella more likely to reside in capital region=p<0.0001
Eikmeier et al (USA)15 2020691 cases of shigella of which 194 were in non-travel-associated menCross-sectional studyMixed population with 217 men217 men with shigella, 65 (30%) were living with HIV and 36 (17%) had a recent bacterial STI. 42 (19%) had drug-resistant (decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (DSA)) shigella
men with DSA-shigella higher risk of: chlamydia (OR=8.3, 95% CI 3.2 to 21.1), gonorrhoea (OR=5.2, 95% CI 2.0 to 13.4), syphilis (OR=11.7 95% CI 2.2 to 62.6),
HIV (OR=5.0, 95% CI 2.4 to 10.1),
any bacterial STI (OR=9.0, 95% CI 4.1 to 20.0),
multiple bacterial STIs (OR=9.3, 95% CI 2.9 to 29.4).
Serafino Wani et al (England)13 2016Living with HIV
Previous history of syphilis
Case reportMSMLiving with HIV.
Recent hepatitis C infection.
Gilbart et al (England and Wales)17 2015n=34/42 MSM with shigella interviewed
Median age: 38 years
Living with HIV: 20 (29%)
QualitativeMSMThemes generated:
MSM living with HIV.
MSM living in urban/capital regions.
MSM using social media and geospatial sexual networking applications facilitating condom less sex.
MSM engaging in chemsex (mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine, γ-butyrolactone and γ-hydroxybutyrate and phospho-diesterase-5 inhibitors) and injecting drug use.
MSM attending sex parties and group sex sessions.
Sexual behaviours: insertive fisting, receptive fisting and coprophilia.
Seroadaptive preferences/behaviour.
Marcus et al (Germany)18 2004n=17/29 questionnaires analysed
Mean age: 32.7 years
Case seriesMSMOral-anal contact with sex partners.
Wu et al (Taiwan)19 2015n=79
All subjects living with HIV
Case–control studyMSMOral-anal sex (aOR=15.5, 95% CI 3.6 to 66.7).
Chemsex (aOR=5.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 227).
Poppers (aOR=10.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 64.2).
HIV viral load >100 000 copies/mL (aOR=4.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 16.9).
Past gonorrhoea (aOR 29.4, 95% CI 2.3 to 340.2).
Recent syphilis (aOR=4.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 11.6).
Past syphilis (aOR=3.3, 95% CI 1.5 to 7.0).
Aragón et al (USA)3 2007n=76
Mean age (of cases): 37.4 years
Case–control studyMixed population with 48 MSMLiving with HIV (OR=8.17, 95% CI 2.71 to 24.6) oral-anal contact (OR=7.5, 95% CI 1.74 to 32.3).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (USA)20 2001n=62/67 MSM with shigella,
Median age: 39 years
35 living with HIV
Cross-sectional studyMSMOral-anal contact.
Multiple sexual partners.
O’Sullivan et al (Australia)21 2002n=42
Median age: 38 years
Living with HIV: 22 (52%)
Cross-sectional studyMSMLiving with HIV.
Casual sex partners in the last 3 months.
Visiting a sex venue in the last 2 weeks.
Oral-anal contact in the last 2 weeks.
Not always washing hands after sex in the last 2 weeks.
Zayet et al (France)22 2021n=3
Mean age: 32 years
PrEP users: 2
Case seriesMSMMultiple sexual contacts.
History of STIs.
Condomless anal and oral sex.
PrEP use.
Morgan et al (England)23 2006n=17
Mean age: 37 years
Case seriesMSMOral-anal contact.
Casual sexual partners.
Living with HIV.
Cresswell et al (England)7 2015n=24
Median age: 43 years
Living with HIV: 13
Case seriesMSMChem-sex.
Concomitant STIs.
Living with HIV.
Condomless anal sex.
Braam et al (The Netherlands)10 2022n=13/389 had shigella
Median age=32 years
Cross-sectional studyMSMHIV-negative MSM using or having used PrEP.
  • PrEP, pre-exposure prophylaxis.