Table 2

Sociodemographic, health-related factors and sexual behaviours associated with reporting testing for HIV during three periods of the first year of the UK’s pandemic response

Lookback period (period number)March–June/July 2020 (P1)July–November/December 2020 (P2)December 2020–March/April 2021 (P3)
Sample composition, col % (n)(Row) % reporting a recent HIV test (n)uOR (95% CI) for reporting a recent HIV test (n)P valueaOR (95% CI)* for reporting a recent HIV test (n)P valueSample composition, col % (n)(Row) % reporting a recent HIV test (n)uOR (95% CI) for reporting a recent HIV test (n)P valueaOR (95% CI)* for reporting a recent HIV test (n)P valueSample composition, col % (n)(Row) % reporting a recent HIV test (n)uOR (95% CI) for reporting a recent HIV test (n)P valueaOR (95% CI)* for reporting a recent HIV test (n)P value
All†100.0 (1753)29.7 (521)100.0 (1308)39.4 (515)100.0 (1330)40.5 (538)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age (years)
 Under 3026.7 (468)35.3 (165)1<0.0011<0.00128.9 (378)41.0 (155)1<0.00110.31125.8 (343)44.6 (153)1<0.00110.024
 30–4435.5 (623)32.6 (203)0.89 (0.69 to 1.14)0.77 (0.58 to 1.01)37.7 (493)44.6 (220)1.16 (0.88 to 1.52)0.95 (0.68 to 1.32)35.1 (466)45.9 (214)1.05 (0.80 to 1.40)0.97 (0.71 to 1.33)
 45 and over37.8 (662)23.1 (153)0.55 (0.42 to 0.72)0.54 (0.40 to 0.72)33.4 (437)32.0 (140)0.68 (0.51 to 0.90)0.77 (0.54 to 1.10)39.1 (520)32.9 (171)0.61 (0.46 to 0.81)0.68 (0.49 to 0.94)
Sexual identity
 Gay85.1 (1492)31.4 (469)1<0.00110.00282.4 (1078)42.0 (453)1<0.00110.08683.4 (1109)42.6 (472)1<0.00110.036
 Bisexual‡14.9 (261)19.9 (52)0.54 (0.39 to 0.75)0.59 (0.42 to 0.82)17.6 (230)27.0 (62)0.51 (0.37 to 0.70)0.72 (0.50 to 1.05)16.6 (221)29.9 (66)0.57 (0.42 to 0.78)0.69 (0.49 to 0.98)
Ethnicity
 White§88.5 (1552)29.6 (460)10.836n.a.87.2 (1141)39.3 (448)10.833n.a.90.0 (1197)40.3 (482)10.683n.a.
 All other ethnic groups¶11.5 (201)30.4 (61)1.03 (0.75 to 1.42)12.8 (167)40.1 (67)1.04 (0.74 to 1.44)10.0 (133)42.1 (56)1.08 (0.75 to 1.55)
Country of residence in the UK
 England85.5 (1499)31.1 (466)10.00210.00983.4 (1091)41.9 (457)1<0.00110.00883.4 (1109)41.7 (462)10.04310.114
 Outside England14.5 (254)21.7 (55)0.61 (0.45 to 0.84)0.64 (0.46 to 0.90)16.6 (217)26.7 (58)0.51 (0.37 to 0.70)0.60 (0.41 to 0.88)16.6 (221)34.4 (76)0.73 (0.54 to 0.99)0.76 (0.54 to 1.07)
Born in the UK
 Yes78.3 (1373)29.0 (398)10.20510.74276.3 (998)34.9 (348)1<0.0011<0.00178.5 (1044)38.2 (399)10.00210.156
 No21.7 (380)32.4 (123)1.17 (0.92–1.50)0.96 (0.73–1.25)23.7 (310)53.9 (167)2.18 (1.68 to 2.82)1.95 (1.42 to 2.67)21.5 (286)48.6 (139)1.53 (1.17 to 1.99)1.24 (0.92 to 1.68)
Highest educational qualification
 Degree or higher58.9 (1031)30.8 (317)10.26810.79158.8 (769)43.8 (337)1<0.00110.19956.2 (748)44.1 (330)10.00210.223
 Below degree41.2 (721)28.3 (204)0.89 (0.72–1.10)0.97 (0.77–1.22)41.2 (539)33.0 (178)0.63 (0.50 to 0.79)0.83 (0.63 to 1.10)43.8 (582)35.7 (208)0.70 (0.56 to 0.88)0.85 (0.66 to 1.10)
Employed (inc. furlough**)
 Yes77.7 (1355)30.2 (409)10.549n.a.75.4 (986)40.1 (395)10.372n.a.78.0 (1037)41.6 (431)10.119n.a.
 No22.3 (388)28.6 (111)0.93 (0.72–1.19)24.6 (322)37.3 (120)0.89 (0.69 to 1.15)22.0 (293)36.5 (107)0.81 (0.62 to 1.06)
Health-related factors
PrEP use (in the lookback period)
 No84.9 (1481)24.4 (362)1<0.0011<0.00174.2 (970)25.4 (246)1<0.0011<0.00176.8 (1022)29.5 (301)1<0.0011<0.001
 Yes15.1 (264)59.5 (157)4.54 (3.45 to 5.96)3.56 (2.62 to 4.83)25.8 (337)79.8 (269)11.64 (8.60 to 15.76)7.70 (5.51 to 10.76)23.2 (308)77.0 (237)8.00 (5.94 to 10.76)5.71 (4.12 to 7.91)
Life satisfaction level
 Medium–very high69.0 (1208)29.1 (351)10.382n.a.75.5 (988)38.8 (383)10.430n.a.75.2 (998)41.5 (414)10.223n.a.
 Low31.0 (543)31.1 (169)1.10 (0.88 to 1.37)24.5 (320)41.3 (132)1.12 (0.86 to 1.43)24.8 (329)37.7 (124)0.85 (0.66–1.10)
Sexual behaviour ( in the lookback period )
No. of CAS partners
 None63.0 (1105)23.3 (257)1<0.0011<0.00143.8 (573)23.2 (133)1<0.0011<0.00150.0 (665)30.2 (201)1<0.0011<0.001
 One20.8 (364)33.8 (123)1.68 (1.30 to 2.18)1.64 (1.24 to 2.17)24.9 (325)36.6 (119)1.91 (1.42 to 2.57)1.77 (1.26 to 2.49)24.7 (329)37.4 (123)1.38 (1.04 to 1.82)1.21 (0.89 to 1.64)
 Multiple16.2 (284)49.7 (141)3.25 (2.48 to 4.27)2.07 (1.52 to 2.81)31.4 (410)64.2 (263)5.92 (4.47 to 7.83)3.00 (2.16 to 4.17)25.3 (336)63.7 (214)4.05 (3.07 to 5.34)2.10 (1.52 to 2.89)
  • *Adjusting for: age; sexual identity; country of residence; born in the UK; education; living with partner; PrEP use; CAS.

  • †Cisgender MSM that report a negative or unknown HIV status.

  • ‡Including ‘Bisexual’ (S1: n=210; S2: n=169; S3: n=171); ‘Other’ (S1: n=43; S2: n=47; S3: n=44); ‘Straight’ (S1: n=8; S2: n=14; S3: n=6).

  • §Including ‘White British’ (S1: n=1288; S2: n=924; S3: n=1000); ‘White Irish’ (S1: n=64; S2: n=50; S3: n=42); ‘White other’ (S1: n=200; S2: n=167; S3: n=155).

  • ¶Including ‘Black’ (S1: n=24; S2: n=38; S3: n=22); ‘Asian’ (S1: n=98; S2: n=61; S3: n=52); ‘Mixed or other’ (S1: n=79; S2: n=68; S3: n=59).

  • **The UK government paid 80% of the salary of those who were unable to work due to COVID-19 restrictions.15

  • aOR, adjusted OR; CAS, condomless anal sex; CI, confidence interval; MSM, men who have sex with men; n.a., not applicable; PrEP, pre-exposure prophylaxis; uOR, unadjusted OR.