Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria for selected articles

DomainInclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
PopulationPeople who need STBBI testing.
From a health equity perspective, only publications that consider at least one of the PROGRESS-Plus factors as their target population or a stratification level in their analysis or publications.
InterventionAny intervention integrating digital technologies to facilitate access to STBBI testing including home testing, self-sampling and/or connections with laboratory services.
  • Web portals including websites with chatbots, etc

  • Applications (mobile and desktop)

  • Social media

  • Interventions that are mainly in person or clinic based but deliver service notifications via SMS and/or email.

  • Interventions leveraging websites and social media channels that do not provide individualised communication, for example, STBBI information and education portals and promotional websites linked to in-person STBBI testing.

ComparisonNo or clinic-based STBBI testing
  • Primary outcomes: uptake of STBBI testing—for example, completion and return of STBBI test samples, frequency of testing and repeat testing rates.

  • Secondary outcomes: STBBI positivity rates, linkage to treatment and partner notification rates.

  • Prevention-related outcomes, for example, condom use, uptake of HIV PrEP, knowledge about STBBIs, etc.

  • Treatment-related outcomes, for example, virological suppression rates in HIV.

Time frameJanuary 2010 to datePublished before year 2010
Study designPrimary research studies including randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case–control studies, cross-sectional studies (analytical) and quasi-experimental or pre-intervention and post-intervention study designs or qualitative studies—specifically assessing outcomes of interest.
*Included articles must either describe differential outcomes by any of the PROGRESS-Plus factors, stratify effects of digital interventions or conduct effect modification or moderation analysis by and of the PROGRESS-Plus factors.
  • Reviews and researcher perspectives or commentaries.

  • Editorials, case reports, systematic or scoping reviews, design descriptions of interventions without a primary assessment of outcomes, etc.

  • Papers without full texts available.

SettingCommunity settings
  • Interventions in a contrived or hypothetical setting.

  • Studies of prospective digital interventions that are not implemented or evaluated through the study.

LanguagePublished in EnglishPublished in any language other than English
  • PrEP, pre-exposure prophylaxis; PROGRESS-Plus, Place of residence, Race, Occupation, Gender/Sex, Religion, Education, Socioeconomic status, Social capital and other disadvantaged characteristics; SMS, Short Messaging Service; STBBI, sexually transmitted and bloodborne infection.