Table 3

Characteristics of included articles

CharacteristicFrequency (n=27)Per cent (100%)
Country of first author
 The Netherlands518.5
Year of publication
Type of study
Study design
 Observational study2074.1
 Non-randomised experimental study13.7
 Randomised controlled trial622.2
Type of digital intervention
 Web-based testing2385.2
 Video-assisted testing services, web-based testing and electronic health records27.4
 Mobile applications13.7
 Social media13.7
Sample collection methods
 Postal-based self-sample collection1866.7
 Self-sample collection and interpretation622.2
 Lab-assisted sample collection27.4
 Self-sample collection and interpretation; self-sample collection and postal13.7
  • *Only includes 2 years of data compared with 5 years in other categories.