Table 1

Summary of implemented interventions

Author(s), year
Participants, design, infectionsStudy aimDigital PN interventionOutcomes measuredOther
Partners notifiedPartners testedPartners treatedAcceptability
Clark et al 21
N= 370
  • MSM with symptomatic primary or secondary syphilis

Quantitative randomised controlled trial
Syphilis infections
Evaluate two PN technologies (web-based PN and referral cards) and their effect on notification outcomesWeb application ‘’
Estcourt et al 22
N= 221
  • 116 from genitourinary clinics

  • 105 from NCSP online postal testing service

Quantitative non-randomised study
Chlamydia infections
Assess the safety, feasibility and potential of an eSexual health cliniceSexual health clinic/web application
Götz et al 23
  • Diagnosed with an STI in one of two clinics

  • 1184 web-application codes, with 988 linked to index patient records

Quantitative descriptive study
  • Pilot

Multiple STIs including HIV
Pilot of ‘’ to evaluate use and partner response linked to clinical dataWeb application ‘’
(requires a log in code generated from the STI clinic)
Guy et al 38
  • Family planning doctors and nurses involved in chlamydia management in non-government clinics

Mixed-methods study
  • Survey and focus groups

Chlamydia infections
Evaluate PN practices of family planning clinicians following a patient’s chlamydia diagnosis and assess how often patients are referred to the PN websiteWeb application ‘Let Them Know’
  • Anonymous

  • SMS, email or letter

HCP perspective
Hightow-Weidman et al 24
  • 362 internet PN 2011-2012

  • 133 internet PN 2010

  • 29 SMS PN

Quantitative non-randomised study
Syphilis and HIV infections
Service evaluation comparing PN outcomes from PN using closed and open email systems, internet PN and a pilot SMS PNInternet and SMS✓*DIS initiated
Htaik et al 25
  • Web application users between 2011 and 2019

Quantitative descriptive study
Multiple STIs excluding HIV
Determine the number of messages sent on ‘Let Them Know’ and whether this improved PNWeb application ‘Let Them Know’
  • SMS

Hunter et al 39
  • Individuals identified in a syphilis infection cluster

Mixed-methods study
  • Anecdotal reports

Syphilis infections
Describe the experience of using Facebook as a complementary approach to traditional PN methodsFacebook
  • Investigate

  • PN

  • Elicit partners

✓*DIS initiated
Mobley et al 26
  • MSM with early syphilis

Quantitative non-randomised study
Syphilis infections
Assess the association of PN and use of internet-based applications for meeting sex partnersInternet appDIS initiated
Pennise et al 28
  • MSM within a multi-infection investigation

Quantitative non-randomised study
Multiple STIs including HIV
Describe a multi-infection STI investigation and how the use of smartphone technologies assistedSmartphone app
GSN app
DIS initiated
Udeagu et al 29
  • Partners receiving HIV PN

Quantitative non-randomised study HIV infections
Compare internet and SMS PN with traditional PN outcomes to guideInternet and SMSDIS initiated
Van Aar et al 30
  • MSM who are newly diagnosed with an STI/HIV, reporting 612 partners at risk

Quantitative descriptive study
  • Pilot

Multiple STIs including HIV
Assess current PN practices, effectiveness and determinants of being notified among MSMInternet
Willetts, Cowper & Cameron32
  • Partner issues a voucher from a chlamydia positive partner

Quantitative descriptive study
Chlamydia infections
Evaluate the use of a novel electronic voucher treatment serviceElectronic prescription voucher
  • *Reports on positive cases or number of partners with unknown status.

  • †Index patient perspective.

  • ‡Both Index patient and partner perspectives.

  • DIS, disease investigation specialist; GSN, geosocial networking; HCP, healthcare professional; MSM, men who have sex with men; NCSP, National Chlamydia Screening Program; PN, partner notification; SMS, short message service; STIs, sexually transmitted infections.